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Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto

versão impressa ISSN 1645-0523

Rev. Port. Cien. Desp. v.5 n.1 Porto jan. 2005

 

Efeitos da ingestão dos aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada na fadiga central

 

Paulo Armada-da-Silva*

Francisco Alves

Universidade Técnica de Lisboa

Faculdade de Motricidade Humana

Portugal

 

RESUMO

A descoberta de alterações na actividade e concentração intracefálica de alguns neurotransmissores, nomeadamente a serotonina (5-hidroxitriptamina, 5-HT), durante e após o exercício intenso de longa duração, colocou a questão da relação entre o conhecido efeito depressor destes compostos e o controlo metabólico em esforço de dominante aeróbia. A perturbação do funcionamento dos sistemas monoaminérgicos encefálicos induzida pelo exercício pode estar na base do impedimento à continuação da activação central do sistema neuromuscular em situações próximas do limite, tão habituais no atleta de fundo quando em competição. Ora, sabe-se que a taxa de síntese da 5-HT é sensível à concentração plasmática do triptofano (TRP) livre, dos aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada (AACR) e dos ácidos gordos, o que permitirá a manipulação da função serotoninérgica indirectamente através da suplementação de AACR e de hidratos de carbono. A exploração da intervenção dietética ganhou importância devido à probabilidade da suplementação em AACR induzir uma redução da taxa de passagem dos percursores da 5-HT pela barreira hemato-encefálica. É nosso objectivo neste trabalho discutir a eficácia da intervenção dietética sobre os mecanismos subjacentes ao fenómeno da fadiga central a partir da apreciação do quadro actual de conhecimentos sobre estes complexos mecanismos de regulação metabólica e neuro-humoral.

Palavras-chave: fadiga central, aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada, serotonina.

 

ABSTRACT

The role of branched chain amino acids supplementation on central fatigue.

Evidence of changes in the concentration of certain neurotransmitters in the brain during and after long distance high-intensity exercise, especially serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), raised the question of the relationship between the well known depressor effect of these compounds and the metabolic and neuro-hormonal regulation present in the acute response to this type of physical exertion. Functional disturbance of the brain monoaminergic systems induced may be the reason for the inability to maintain central activation of muscle in near the limit situations as happens so often to long distance athletes in competition. Since it is well known that the rate of synthesis of 5-HT is sensitive to the plasma content in free triptophan (TRP), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and free fatty acids, it has been postulated that an increase in free fatty acids during and after endurance exercise mediates an increment of free TRP which, in combination with a decline of circulating BCAA, facilitates the entry of TRP into the brain, there by increasing cerebral serotonergic tone. This way, supplementation with BCAAs and/or carbohydrates during exercise becomes an interesting procedure to explore, since it may reduce the rate of penetration of 5-HT precursors through the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of nutritional strategies on the mechanisms underlying central fatigue from present knowledge on the complex metabolic and neurohumoral regulation mechanisms.

Key Words: central fatigue, branched-chain amino acids, serotonin.

 

 

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CORRESPONDÊNCIA

Paulo A.S. Armada da Silva*

Faculdade de Motricidade Humana

Universidade Técnica de Lisboa

Estrada da Costa da Costa,

Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal

parmada@fmh.utl.pt