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Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto

versão impressa ISSN 1645-0523

Rev. Port. Cien. Desp. v.5 n.1 Porto jan. 2005

 

Efeito ergogênico da cafeína na performance em exercícios de média e longa duração.

 

Leandro Altimari1,2*

Juliana de Melo1,3

Michele Trindade1,2

Julio Tirapegui1,2

Edilson Cyrino1

 

1Grupo de Estudo e Pesquisa em Metabolismo, Nutrição e Exercício. Centro de Educação Física e Desportos. Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil.

2Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

3Departamento de Ciência do Esporte. Faculdade de Educação Física. Universidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil.

 

RESUMO

A cafeína é uma substância que não apresenta valor nutricional, sendo classificada como um alcalóide farmacologicamente ativo, estimulante do sistema nervoso central (SNC). No entanto, esta substância tem sido considerada um ergogênico nutricional, por estar presente em várias bebidas consumidas diariamente, tais como o café, o chocolate, o mate e algumas bebidas à base de guaraná. O seu uso tem se tornado bastante comum no meio esportivo, principalmente nos últimos anos, particularmente por atletas que disputam provas de ciclismo e corredores de média e longa distância. O efeito ergogênico da cafeína sobre a performance tem sido demonstrado após a ingestão aguda de doses de cafeína entre 3 e 6 mg/kg de peso corporal. Contudo, ainda não parece estar claro quais os mecanismos de ação da cafeína que estariam envolvidos na melhoria da performance em exercícios prolongados. Quanto ao suposto efeito diurético provocado pelo uso da cafeína, este não tem sido confirmado na prática e, ao que parece, está relacionado ao emprego de mega-doses desta substância. Recentemente, a cafeína foi retirada da lista de substâncias proibidas pela Agência Mundial Anti-Doping (WADA), o que possivelmente implicará em um aumento considerável do uso desta substância por parte de atletas. Assim, é necessário que se tome alguns cuidados quando da utilização desta substância ergogênica, uma vez que a ingestão desorientada pode contribuir para o aparecimento de efeitos colaterais que poderão influenciar negativamente a performance do atleta.

Palavras-chave: cafeína, doping, ergogênico nutricional, performance, exercícios físicos prolongados.

 

ABSTRACT

Ergogenic effect of caffeine on performance in middle- and long- term exercise

Caffeine is a substance that does not have a nutritional value being classified as a pharmacological active alkaloid, with stimulating action on central nervous system (CNS). However, this substance has been considered a nutritional ergogenic, since it is present in several drinks consumed daily, such as coffee, chocolate, teas and some soft drinks with guaraná. Its use has been common in sports, specially in last years, particularly for athletes in cycling competitions and middle- and long-distance runners. The ergogenic effect of caffeine on performance has been demonstrated after the acute ingestion of doses of caffeine between 3 and 6 mg/kg of body weight. However, it is not still clear which action mechanisms of caffeine would be involved on performance improvement of long-term exercise. The supposed diuretic effect induced by the use of caffeine has not been confirmed in practice, and it seems that it is related to employment of mega-doses of this substance. Recently, caffeine was removed of the list of the prohibited substances by the World Agency Anti-Doping (WADA). This probably implies a considerable increase of its use by athletes. Thus, it is necessary some cares when using this ergogenic substance, since the disoriented ingestion may contribute to the emergence of collateral effects influencing negatively athlete's performance.

Key Words: caffeine, doping, nutritional ergogenic, performance, long-term exercise.

 

 

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CORRESPONDÊNCIA

Leandro Altimari*

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental

Universidade de São Paulo

Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, Cidade Universitária

CEP 05508-900 – São Paulo, SP

Brasil

lraltimari@hotmail.com