SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.3 número2Questionário de problemas familiares: desenvolvimento da versão portuguesa de um instrumento de avaliação de sobrecarga familiarTraumagraf: uma grelha de avaliação de acontecimentos traumáticos índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO

Compartilhar


Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças

versão impressa ISSN 1645-0086

Psic., Saúde & Doenças v.3 n.2 Lisboa  2002

 

A psicologia do consumo de tabaco: uma revisão da literatura

Regina de Cássia Rondina1, Clóvis Botelho2, & R. Gorayeb1

1Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo – Brasil

2Faculdade de Ciências Médicas ISC-UFMT, Cuiabá, MT – Brasil

 

RESUMO: Este artigo apresenta um resumo da literatura sobre a relação entre perfil psicológico e consumo de tabaco nas últimas décadas. Estudos revelam que fumantes tendem a ser mais extrovertidos, ansiosos, tensos, impulsivos e com mais traços de neuroticismo, psicoticismo e histórico de desordens depressivas e traços de ansiedade, em relação a ex-fumantes e não-fumantes. Um corpo crescente de evidências sugere ainda que a prevalência de tabagismo é maior em portadores de quadros psicopatológicos, em especial a esquizofrenia. Contudo, essa relação não está completamente elucidada e ainda são necessários mais estudos, para comprovação dos resultados. O conhecimento acerca desse assunto, pode servir como suporte para o trabalho de profissionais da área de saúde, como médicos, psicólogos, fisioterapeutas (entre outros). A identificação de traços de personalidade que dificultam o abandono do hábito, pode subsidiar a elaboração e aperfeiçoamento de terapias, como técnicas de aconselhamento, por exemplo, no sentido de aumentar as possibilidades de êxito dos pacientes durante o tratamento e minimizar as recaídas. Além disso, o conhecimento sobre características de personalidade que favorecem a iniciação do consumo de tabaco, pode facilitar a elaboração e aperfeiçoamento dos programas profiláticos (educativo / preventivo) contra o início e progressão do tabagismo.

Palavras chave: Dependência, Nicotina, Personalidade, Tabagismo, Tratamento

 

 

The psychology of smoking: a review of the literature

ABSTRACT: The present study is a review of the literature concerning the relationship between psychological profile and smoking during the last decades. Studies have shown that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, impulsive, and present more traces of neuroticism, psychosis, a history of depressive disorders and traces of anxiety than ex-smokers and non-smokers. An increasing body of evidence even suggests that the prevalence of smoking is higher in subjects with psychopathological signs and symptoms, particularly subjects with schizophrenia. However, this relationship is still not completely understood and further studies are required to prove these results. An increased understanding of this subject can help the work of health professionals such as doctors, psychologists and physiotherapists, among others. The identification of personality traits that prevent individuals from giving up smoking may help in the elaboration and improvement of therapies, for example, counseling techniques, in order to increase the possibility of successful treatment and to minimize relapse. In addition, knowledge about personality characteristics that favor the initiation of smoking may facilitate the elaboration and improvement of prophylactic educational/preventive programs against the initiation and progression of smoking.

Key words: Addiction, Nicotine, Personality, Smoking, Treatment

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

REFERÊNCIAS

Arai, Y., Hosokawa, T., Fukao, A., Izumi, Y., & Hisamichi, S. (1997). Smoking behaviour and personality: a population-based study in Japan. Addiction, 92 (8), 1023-1033.

        [ Links ]

Bejerot, S., & Humble, M. (1999). Low prevalence of smoking among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 40, 268-272.

Bejerot, S., von Knorring, L., & Ekselius, L. (2000). Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Euro Psychiatry, 15 (7), 395-401.

Black, D., Zimmerman, M., & Coryell, W. (1999). Cigarette Smoking and psychiatric disorder in a community sample. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 11, 129-136.

Breslau, N., Kilbey, M.M., & Andreski, P. (1991). Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1069-1074.

Breslau, N., Kilbey, M.M., & Andreski, P. (1992). Nicotine Withdrawal Symptons and Psychiatric Disorders: Findings From an Epidemiologic Study of Young Adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149 (4), 464-469.

Breslau, N., Kilbey, M.M., & Andreski, P. (1993). Vulnerability to Psychopathology in Nicotine-Dependent Smokers: An Epidemiologic Study of Young Adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 941-946.

Breslau, N., Kilbey, M.M., & Andreski, P. (1994). DSM-III-R nicotine dependence in young adults: Prevalence, correlates and associated psychiatric disorders. Addiction, 89, 743-754.

Breslau, N., Peterson, E.L., Schultz, L.R., Chilcoat, H.D., & Andreski, P. (1998). Major Depression and stages of smoking: A longitudinal investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 161-166.

Canals, J., Doménech, E., & Bladé, J. (1996). Smoking and Trait Anxiety. Psychological Reports, 79, 809-810.

Dalack, G.W., Glassman, A.H., Rivelli, S.A., Covey, L., & Stetner, F. (1995). Mood, Major Depression, and Fluoxetine Response in Cigarette Smokers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152 (3), 398-403.

De Leon, J., Dadvand, M., Canuso, C. White, A.O., Stanilla, J.K., & Simpson, G.M. (1995). Schizophrenia and smoking. An epidemiological survey in a state hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 453-455.

Dunnel, K., & Cartwright, A. (1972). Medicine takers, prescribers, and hoarders. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Eysenck, H.J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Eysenck, H.J. (1973). Personality and maintenance of the smoking habit. In W.L. Dunn (Ed.), Smoking behavior: motives e incentives (pp. 113-46). Toronto: John Wiley.

Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.

Eysenck, H.J, Eysenck, S.B.G., & Barret, P. (1986). A revised version of the Psychoticism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 21-29.

Escobedo, L.G., Anda, R.F., & Kirch, D.G. (1996). Depression and smoking initiation among US Latinos. Addiction, 91, 113-119.

Foreyt, J.P., Jackson, A.S., Squires, W.G., Hartung, G.H., Murray, T.D., & Gotto, AM. (1993). Psychological Profile of College Students Who Use Smokeless Tobacco. Addictive Behaviours, 18, 107-116.

Gilbert, D.G. (1995). Smoking: Individual Differences, Psychopathology, and Emotion. Washington D.C: Taylor & Francis.

Gilbert, D.G. (1988). EEG and personality differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 659-665.

Gilbert, D.G, & Gilbert, DO. (1995). Personality, Psychopatology, and Nicotine Response as Mediators of the Genetics of Smoking. Behavior Genetics, 25 (2), 133-147.

Gilbert, D.G., McClernon, F.J., & Gilbert, B.O. (1997). The Psychology of the Smoker. In C.T. Bolliger & K.O. Fagerström (Eds.), The Tobacco Epidemic Program Respiratory (pp. 132150). Basel: Karger.

Heath, A.C., Madden, P.A.F., Slutske, W.S., & Martin, N.G. (1995). Personality and Inheritance of Smoking Behavior: A genetic perspective. Behavior Genetics, 25 (2), 103-117.

Hopper, J.L., White, V.M., Macaskill, G.T., Hill, D.J., & Clifford, C.A. (1992). Alcohol Use, Smoking Habits and the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire in Adolescent Australian Twins. Acta Genetic Medical Gemellol, 41, 311-324.

Huijbrechts, I.P, Duivendvoorden, H.J., Dedckers, J.W., Erdman, R.A.M, Leenders, I.C., Passchier, J., & Pop, G.A. (1996). Modification of smoking habits five months after myocardial infarction: Relationship with personality characteristics. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 40 (4) 369-378.

Hugues, J.R, Hatsukami, D.K, Mitchell, J.E., & Dahlgren, L.A. (1986). Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. American Journal Psychiatry, 143, 993-997.

Herran, A., Santiago, A., Sandoya, M., Fernández, M.J., Díez-Mamrique, J.F., & Vázquez-Barquero, J.L. (2000). Determinants of smoking behaviour in outpatients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 41, 373-381.

Jorm, A.F., Rodgers, B., Jacomb, P.A, Christensen, H., Henderson, S., & Korten, A.E. (1999). Smoking and Mental Health: Results from a community survey. Journal of the Australian Medical Association, 170 (2), 74-77.

Kawakami, N, Takai, A, Takatsuka, N., & Shimizu, H. (2000). Eysenck’s personality and tobacco/nicotine dependence in male ever-smokers in Japan. Addictive Behaviors, 25 (4), 585-591.

Kick, S.D., & Cooley, D.D. (1997). Depressive, not anxiety, symptoms are associated with current cigarette smoking among university internal medical patients. Psychosomatics, 38 (2), 132-139.

Kimeldorf, C., & Geiwitz, P.J. (1966). Smoking and Blacky orality factors. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 30 (2), 166-168.

Kandel, D.B., & Davies, M. (1986).Adult sequelae of adolescent depressive symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 255-262.

Lipkus, I.M, Barefoot, J.C., Williams, R.B., & Siegler, I.C. (1994). Personality Measures as Predictors of Smoking Initiation and Cessation in the UNC Alumni Heart Study. Health Psychology, 13 (2), 149-155.

Lipkus, I.M, Barefoot, J.C., Feaganes, J. Williams, R.B., & Siegler, I.C. (1994). A short MMPI Scale to Identify People Likely to Begin Smoking. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62 (2), 213-222.

McManus, I.C., & Weeks, S.J. (1982). Smoking, personality and reasons for smoking. Psychological Medicine, 12, 349-356.

Mendéz Guerra, M., Lazama Cohen, M., & Rubio Monteverde, H. (1989). Detección de síntomas depresivos en personas que abandonan el hábito tabáquico. Revista Instituto Nacional Enfermedades Respiratórias, 2 (2), 74-77.

Mitchell, S.H. (1999). Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers.Psychopharmacology, 146 (4), 455-464.

Parkes, K.R. (1984). Smoking and the Eysenck personality dimensions: An interactive model. Psychological Medicine, 14, 825-834.

Patton, D., Barnes, G.E., & Murray, R.P. (1993). Personality characteristics of smokers and ex-smokers. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 653-664.

Patton, D, Barnes, G.E., & Murray, R.P. (1997). A personality typology of smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 259-273.

Pritchard, W.S. (1991). The link between smoking and P: A serotonergic hypotheses. Personality and Individual Differences, 12 (11), 1187-1204.

Reuter, M., & Netter, P. (2001). The Influence of Personality on Nicotine Craving: A Hierarchical Multivariate Statistical Prediction Model. Neuropsychobiology, 44, 47-53.

Rondina, R.C., Moratelli, H., & Botelho, C. (2001). Tabagismo e características da personalidade em estudantes universitários. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 28 (2), 52-59.

Roy, K., Parker, G., Mitchell, P., & Wilhelm, K. (2001). Depression and Smoking: examining correlates in a subset of depressed patients. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35 (3), 329-335.

Stanaway, R.G., & Watson, D.W.(1981). Smoking and personality: A factorial Study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 213-214.

Seltzer, C.C., & Oechsli, F.W. (1985). Psychosocial characteristics of adolescent smokers before they started smoking: Evidence of self-selection. A prospective study. Journal of Chronic Disease, 38 (1), 17-26.

Smith, G.M. (1969). Relations between personality and smoking behavior in preadult subjects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33 (6), 710-715

Spielberg, C.D., & Jacobs, G.A. (1982). Personality and smoking behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46 (4), 396-406.

Takemura, Y., Akanuma, M., Kikuchi, S., & Inaba, Y. (1999). Cross-Sectional Study on the relationship between smoking or smoking cessation and trait anxiety. Preventive Medicine, 29, 496-500.

Tucker, L.A. (1984). Psychological differences between adolescent smoking intenders and nonintenders. The Journal of Psychology, 118, 37-43.

Whalen, C.K., Jamner, L.D., Henker, B., & Delfino, R.J. (2001). Smoking and Moods in Adolescents with Depressive and Aggressive Dispositions-Evidence From Surveys and Electronic Diaries. Health Psychology, 20 (2), 99-111.

Waters, W.E. (1971). Smoking and neuroticism. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 25, 162-164.

West, R., & Hajek, P. (1997). What happens to anxiety levels on giving up smoking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1589-1592.

Windle, M., & Windle, R.C. (2001). Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among middle adolescents: Prospective associations and intrapersonal and interpersonal influences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69 (2), 215-226.