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Psicologia

versão impressa ISSN 0874-2049

Psicologia v.22 n.1 Lisboa  2008

 

Análise do fenómeno de base segura em contexto familiar: as relações criança/mãe e criança/pai1

Lígia Monteiro2

Manuela Veríssimo3

Brian E. Vaughn4

António J. Santos5

Marília Fernandes6

 

 

Resumo:

O estudo analisa, no contexto da teoria de Bowlby e Ainsworth, o modo como a criança utiliza as figuras parentais como base segura, explorando a especificidade da organização destes comportamentos nas duas relações. Analisa, ainda, a existência de semelhanças ou diferenças nas classificações da criança em relação à mãe e ao pai. Os participantes são 56 díades mãe/criança e pai/criança, tendo as crianças idades compreendidas entre os 29 e os 38 meses. Observadores independentes realizaram visitas domiciliárias com a criança/mãe e com a criança/pai, utilizando o AQS (Waters, 1995). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os valores de segurança para a mãe e para o pai. Com base nas escalas do AQS, obtiveram-se diferenças significativas na Proximidade e no Contacto Físico. Assim, a criança utiliza ambos os pais como base segura, embora os estilos de interacção possam apresentar características específicas. Verificou-se, ainda, a existência de uma correlação significativa entre os valores de segurança da criança em relação à mãe e ao pai, o que vai ao encontro dos resultados obtidos por Veríssimo et al. (2006). Esta correlação poderá ser explicada pela semelhança nos cuidados parentais.

Palavras-chave: fenómeno de base segura, figuras parentais, semelhanças vs. diferenças nas relações.

 

 

The study of the secure base phenomenon in the family context: child/mother and child/father relationships

Abstract:

This paper high lights the importance of a family system approach to the study of attachment, in a naturalistic environment, by analysing the way the child uses both mother and father as a secure base, as well as, the concurrence or independence of this attachment relationships. 56 mother/child and father/child díades participated in the study. Children’s ages range between 29 and 38 months. Independent observers, made home observations of the child with the mother and the child with the father, using the AQS (Waters, 1995). No differences were found between mean averages for security scores for mothers and fathers, showing that the child is able to use both parents as secure-bases. Significant differences were found in the Proximity and Physical Contact scales between both parents, suggesting that mothers and fathers probably have different communicative styles. A significant correlation was found between security scores for mother and father, a result comparable to the one obtained by Veríssimo et al. (2006). This could be explained by the similarity on parental caregiving behaviour.

Keywords: secure base phenomenon, parental figures, similarities vs. difference.

 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

 

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1 Contacto: Lígia Monteiro, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1100 Lisboa. Lígia_monteiro@ispa.pt.

2 Doutoranda Universidade Nova/ISPA, Bolseira F.C.T. (SFRH/BD/10277/2002), UIPCDE.

3 Professora Associada, ISPA, UIPCDE.

4 Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University.

5 Professor Associado, ISPA, UIPCDE.

6 Discentes da área de Psicologia Educacional, ISPA.

Agradecimentos: os autores gostariam de agradecer a todas as mães, pais e crianças que aceitaram participar neste estudo, financiado pela FCT (POCTI, Plurianual, UIPCDE). Os autores gostariam, ainda, de agradecer a colaboração de André Silva, Iolanda Queiroz, Ana Zilda Silva, Carla Oliveira, Inês Peceguina, Vera Oliveira e Sofia Meneres, na recolha dos dados. Os autores gostariam, também, de agradecer os comentários valiosos da professora Kelly Bost e da professora Zilda Fidalgo.