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Print version ISSN 0874-2049

Psicologia vol.21 no.1 Lisboa  2007


«O retorno é o Movimento do Tao»: Uma abordagem dialéctica da eficácia organizacional


Miguel Pina e Cunha1

Arménio Rego2


Resumo: Frequentemente, as discussões sobre a eficácia organizacional transmitem a ideia de que algumas organizações são mais eficazes do que outras. Neste trabalho, o ponto de partida é distinto: algumas organizações estão mais eficazes que outras. A eficácia é vista, por conseguinte, como um processo e não como um resultado estável. Para explorar esta perspectiva dinâmica, recorremos à filosofia chinesa do taoísmo. Algumas noções simples são usadas para discutir como eficácia e ineficácia, mais do que estados independentes, podem afinal ser as duas faces de um mesmo processo.

Palavras­‑chave: eficácia, ineficácia, taoísmo, processos organizacionais, paradoxos.


Inversion is the Movement of the Tao: A dialectical analysis of organizational effecttiveness

Abstract: Discussions on organizational effectiveness frequently transmit the idea that some organizations are more effective than others. In this work we challenge this idea and suggest that some organizations may be more effective than others but are becoming something else. Effectiveness is viewed, as such, as a process rather than as a stable state. To explore this perspective, we use the ancient Chinese philosophy of Taoism. Some simple notions are considered to discuss how effectiveness and efficiency, more than independent states, can instead be taken as two faces of the same process.

Key‑words: effectiveness, in­‑effectiveness, taoism, paradoxes, organizational processes.


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1  Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa. A correspondência relativa a este artigo deverá ser endereçada a Miguel Pina e Cunha, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua Marquês de Fronteira, 20, 1099­‑038 Lisboa – Portugal, E­‑mail:

Miguel Cunha agradece o apoio da Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Bolsa FCT POCTI/GES/48967/2002).

2  Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro.