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Print version ISSN 0874-2049

Psicologia vol.20 no.2 Lisboa  2006


Cross­ Cultural Validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)1


Luísa Faria2; Nelson Lima Santos3; Vladimir Takšić4; Hannu Räty5; Bo Molander6; Stefan Holmström6; John Jansson6; Andreja Avsec7; Natalio Extremera8; Pablo Fernández­‑Berrocal8; Hiroshi Toyota9



Abstract: This article discusses the cross-cultural validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), which consists of 45 items divided into three subscales – (i) perceiving and understanding emotion (PU), (ii) expressing and labelling emotion (EL), and (iii) managing and regulating emotion (MR) – and is classified as a “trait emotional intelligence” or “perceived emotional intelligence” measure.

Originally, it was developed in Croatian settings using a theoretical framework from the emotional intelligence model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997), but it has already been translated into English and presented in 2001 at the 7th European Congress of Psychology in London.

The psychometric qualities and the relations of ESCQ with several relevant constructs in Croatian, Portuguese, Finnish, Swedish, Slovene, Spanish, and Japanese contexts are here presented, using target samples of mainly high school and university students, as well as older subjects (workers and supervisors), highlighting construct, convergent, divergent and concurrent validity. However, the Cronbach alpha of the MRscale needs improvement, stressing the need to further pursue the validity studies of the ESCQ.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, cross­‑cultural validation, self­‑rating scale.



Validação intercultural do Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)

Resumo: Este artigo tem como objectivo discutir a validação intercultural do Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), sendo constituído por 45 itens divididos em três subescalas – (i) percepção emocional (PE),(ii) expressão emocional (EE)e(iii) capacidade para lidar com a emoção (CLE) –, e classifica­do como um instrumento de avaliação da “inteligência emocional de tipo traço” ou da “percepção de competência emocional”.

Foi originalmente desenvolvido no contexto croata, de acordo com a perspectiva teórica de Mayer e Salovey (1997), tendo sido traduzido para inglês e apresentado, em 2001, no 7th European Congress of Psychology, em Londres.

São apresentadas as qualidades psicométricas e as relações do ESCQ com outros constructos relevantes, nos contextos Croata, Português, Finlandês, Sueco, Eslove­no, Espanhol e Japonês, utilizando amostras­‑alvo de estudantes do ensino secun­dário e universitário, bem como de sujeitos mais velhos (trabalhadores e supervi­sores de empresas), tendo evidenciado bons valores de validade de constructo, convergente, divergente e concorrente. Contudo, o valor de alpha de Cronbach da subescala CLE exige melhoria, enfatizando a necessidade de prosseguir os estudos de validade do ESCQ.

Palavras­‑chave: inteligência emocional, validação inter­cultural, escala de auto­‑relato.



Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.




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1 This article is based on the Symposium entitled “Cross­‑cultural validation of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)”, presented in the 9th European Congress of Psychology, Granada – Spain/2005, chaired by Vladimir Takšić, with the participa­tion of all the authors of this article.

2 Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Porto/Portugal (

3 Fernando Pessoa University, Porto/Portugal (

4 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Rijeka/Croatia (

5 Department of Psychology, University of Joensuu/Finland (

6 Department of Psychology, Umeå University/Sweden (

7 Department of Psychology, University of Ljubljana/Slovenia (

8 Department of Psychology, University of Málaga/Spain (

9 Nara University of Education, Takabatake­‑cho, Nara/Japan (