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Psicologia

versão impressa ISSN 0874-2049

Psicologia v.20 n.1 Lisboa  2006

 

Qualidade da vinculação e dos relacionamentos significativos na gravidez*

 

Bárbara Figueiredo 1

Alexandra Pacheco 2

Raquel Costa 3

Rute Magarinho 4

 

 

Resumo: O estudo apresentado neste artigo destinou­‑se a investigar a qualidade da vinculação e das relações significativas na gravidez. Mais precisamente, teve por objectivos (1) determinar as características sociais e demográficas e as condições anteriores de existência que se associam e permitem prever um estilo de vincula­ção (in)seguro e (2) estimar o impacto do estilo de vinculação na qualidade do relacionamento e do apoio por parte do companheiro e de uma outra pessoa signi­ficativa, na gravidez.

Uma amostra de 130 grávidas (66 adolescentes e 64 adultas) foi avaliada no últi­mo trimestre de gestação quanto ao estilo de vinculação e à qualidade do relacio­namento e do apoio por parte do companheiro e de uma outra pessoa significativa (com base na Attachment Style Interview, ASI; Bifulco, Figueiredo, Guedeney, Gorman, Hays et al., 2004; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Bernazzani, 2002a; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Lillie, 2002b). A amostra foi recolhida na Maternidade de Júlio Dinis (Porto) e é bastante heterogénea do ponto de vista social e demográfico, em características como: a idade, o nível educacional, o estado civil, o estatuto ocupa­cional e o tipo de agregado familiar, embora fundamentalmente constituída por grávidas primíparas.

Os resultados mostram que um estilo inseguro de vinculação pode ser previsto na sequência de separação ou divórcio parental durante a infância ou adolescência e quando a grávida está desempregada, e que a gravidez na adolescência se associa ao estilo de vinculação desligado. Mostram ainda que um estilo inseguro de vin­culação permite prever um pior relacionamento na gravidez, quer com o compa­nheiro, quer com a outra pessoa significativa, principalmente a presença de rela­ções discordantes com o companheiro e de relações apáticas com a outra pessoa significativa. As estratégias emaranhadas afectam a relação com o companheiro (em aspectos como menos confiança, menos suporte emocional e mais interacção negativa), mas não a relação com a outra pessoa significativa; enquanto as estraté­gias desligadas afectam a relação com a outra pessoa significativa (em aspectos como menos actividades partilhadas e menos interacção positiva), mas não a rela­ção com o companheiro, e as estratégias amedrontadas afectam o relacionamento, tanto com o companheiro (em aspectos como menor sentimento de ligação) quanto com a outra pessoa significativa (em aspectos como menos confiança).

De acordo com a Teoria da Vinculação, conclui­‑se que condições adversas de exis­tência (anteriores e actuais) propiciam vinculação insegura e que o estilo de vin­culação interfere na qualidade do relacionamento com o companheiro e com ou­tras pessoas significativas, nomeadamente na capacidade da grávida recorrer a apoio.

Palavras‑chave: gravidez; vinculação; relacionamento com o companheiro; rela­cionamento com outros significativos

 

 

Attachment and significant relationship’s quality during pregnancy

Abstract: This study is aimed to investigate the quality of the pregnant woman’s attachment and significant relationships during pregnancy. More precisely it intends (1) to deter­mine social and demographic characteristics as well as previous conditions of existence that may predict an (in)secure attachment style (2) to estimate the attach­ment style’s impact on the quality of the relationship and support by the partner and another significant person, during pregnancy. A sample of 130 pregnant women (66 adolescents and 64 adults) was evaluated in the last trimester of gesta­tion on the attachment style and on the quality of the relationship and support from the partner and another significant person (on the basis of the Atta­chment Style Interview, ASI, Bifulco, Figueiredo, Guedeney, Gorman, Hays et al., 2004; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Bernazzani, 2002a; Bifulco, Moran, Ball & Lillie, 2002b).

The sample was collected at the Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital (Porto, Portugal) and is very heterogeneous regarding social and demographic characteristics, such as: age, educational level, marital status, occupational status and family unit, though it is mainly composed of primiparous pregnant.

The results showed that the pregnant childhood parental divorce/separation and present unemployment predict an insecure attachment style, and an association between teen pregnancy and an dismissing attachment style. The results also showed that an insecure attachment style predicts a worse relationship with the partner, as well as a worse relationship with the significant other, principally the presence of discordant relationships with the partner and of apathetic relationships with the significant other. Enmeshed strategies affects the relationship with the partner (in aspects as less trust, poor emotional support and more negative inter­action), but not with the significant other, while dismissive strategies affect the relationship with the significant other (in aspects as less shared activities and poor positive interaction), but not with the partner, and fearful strategies affect both the relationship with the partner (in aspects as poor attachment) and the relationship with the significant other (in aspects as less trust).

One concludes according to attachment theory that previous and present adverse conditions of existence increase attachment insecurity and that attachment style interferes in the quality of the relationship with the partner and with significant others, namely in the pregnant ability to seek support.

Key‑words: attachment; pregnancy; relationship with partner; relationships with significant others

 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

 

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*Agradecimentos: Queremos agradecer a todas as mães que voluntariamente participaram neste estudo. Queremos também agradecer às Dr.as Ana Marques, Ana Rodrigues e Cristina Cabeleira, que colaboraram na recolha dos dados a seguir apresentados. Apoios: Serviço de Saúde e Desenvolvimento Humano da Fundação Calouste Gulben­kian (Proc. 48914/02­‑04) e Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (POCTI/SAU/14109/1998). A cor­respondência deve ser enviada para: Bárbara Figueiredo, Departamento de Psico­lo­gia, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710­‑057 Braga. bbfi@iep.uminho.pt.

1 Professora Associada no Departamento de Psicologia da Universidade do Minho.

2 Mestre em Psicologia Clínica. Investigadora no Departamento de Psicologia da Univer­sidade do Minho e na Maternidade de Júlio Dinis.

3 Mestre em Psicologia Clínica. Investigadora no Departamento de Psicologia da Univer­sidade do Minho e na Maternidade de Júlio Dinis.

4 Médica Obstetra. Directora do Serviço de Obstetrícia da Maternidade de Júlio Dinis.