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Revista de Ciências Agrárias

versão impressa ISSN 0871-018X

Rev. de Ciências Agrárias v.30 n.1 Lisboa jan. 2007

 

Metabolitos secundários como fontes de bioherbicidas: situação actual e perspectivas

Secondary metabolites as sources of bioherbicides: present situation and perspectives

 

L.S. Dias1 & A.S. Dias1

 

RESUMO

Metabolitos secundários produzidos e libertados por plantas, bactérias e fungos estão envolvidos numa variedade de processos ecológicos, nomeadamente como semioquímicos e alelopatinos. Adicionalmente, e para além das suas possíveis funções ecológicas, muitos dos metabolitos secundários são fitotóxicos, constituindo uma fonte relativamente inexplorada de novos herbicidas.

Solanum nigrum (erva-moira) é uma infestante importante e muito bem sucedida num grande número de culturas, nomeadamente hortícolas e será usada como exemplo principal das utilizações actuais de aleloquímicos vegetais bem como das perspectivas de utilização deste tipo de compostos como bioherbicidas.

Nesse âmbito revêem-se as principais estratégias de pesquisa de bioherbicidas e apresenta-se o estado da arte dos modos de acção de aleloquímicos já comercializados como herbicidas (Bialaphos e PPT), patenteados (AAL-toxina) e em investigação, quer produzidos por plantas superiores (sorgoleona e derivados do cineol) quer de origem bacteriana (hidantocidina) e fúngica (fumonisinas, coletotriquina).

 

ABSTRACT

Secondary metabolites produced and released by plants, bacteria, and fungi are involved in a number of ecological processes, namely as semiochemicals and allelopathins. In addition, and beside their possible ecological roles, a greater number of secondary metabolites are phytotoxic and represent a relatively unexplored source of new herbicides.

Solanum nigrum (black nightshade) is an important and successful weed in many crops, namely in horticulture, and will be used as a major example of actual and prospective uses of phytoallelochemicals as bioherbicides.

Therefore, the main strategies for bioherbicides search are reviewed and the state of art of the modes of action of allelochemicals is presented, including those already in use as herbicides (Bialaphos and PPT), patented (AAL-toxin), and under investigation, whether produced by plants (sorgoleone and cineol derivatives), bacteria (hydantocidin) or fungi (fumonisins and colletotrichin).

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

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1 Chemical Ecology Unit, Centro de Ecologia e Ambiente, Universidade de Évora, Ap. 94, 7002-554 Évora; e-mail: lsdias@uevora.pt

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