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Análise Psicológica

Print version ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica vol.25 no.4 Lisboa Oct. 2007


Kirk Schneider in psychopathology


Bernadett de Freitas Ferreira-Martins (*)

José A. Carvalho Teixeira (**)



Kirk Schneider acentua que a psicologia precisa de uma fundamentação diferente dos pontos de vista tradicionais. Fala-nos de uma perspectiva integrada com fundamentos existenciais, que privilegia métodos qualitativos de investigação, em vez de métodos quantitativos. A experiência humana é vista como artística, criativa, expressiva (“livre”), enquanto que, simultaneamente, pode ser constrangida (“limitada”) pelo ambiente e por factores sociais. Como indivíduos, se nos confrontarmos e nos adaptarmos, somos enriquecidos e reanimados. Se escolhermos ignorar a situação, ficamos “polarizados” e daí disfuncionais (psicopatologia). Kirk Schneider caracteriza clinicamente a dialéctica da liberdade limitada, a capacidade do indivíduo para “constringir” (recuar), “expandir” (libertar) e “centrar-se” em si próprio.

Palavras-chave: Livre, limitada, retrair, expandir, polarizado.



Kirk Schneider emphasises that psychology needs a different grounding from traditional psychology viewpoints. He talks to us about an existential-integrative psychology grounding which has its basis on phenomenology, which is concerned with qualitative rather than quantitative methods. Human experience is seen as being artistic, creative, expressive (“free”), while at the same time it can be constrained (“limited”) by the environment and social viewpoints. If as individuals we confront and adapt we become enriched and revived. If we choose to ignore the situation, we become “polarized” and thus dysfunctional (psychopathology). Kirk Schneider clinically characterizes the “freedom-limitation dialectic” the capacity of the individual to “constrict” (draw-back), “expand” (burst-forth) and of “centring” him/herself.

Key words: Free, limited, constrict, expand, polarized.



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(*) Mestranda em Relação de Ajuda – Perspectivas da Psicoterapia Existencial, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal.

(**) Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal. Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicoterapia Existencial, Lisboa. 

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