SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.25 número3Adaptação parental ao nascimento de um filho: comparação da reactividade emocional e psicossintomatologia entre pais e mães nos primeiros dias após o parto e oito meses após o partoCrenças de senso comum sobre medicamentos genéricos vs.medicamentos de marca: Um estudo piloto sobre diferenças de género índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO

Compartilhar


Análise Psicológica

versão impressa ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica v.25 n.3 Lisboa  2007

 

Queixas subjectivas de saúde, afectividade negativa e utilização de serviços de saúde: Diferenças de género (*)

Nuno Correia Alves (**)

Maria João Figueiras (***)

RESUMO

Os objectivos deste estudo são caracterizar as queixas subjectivas de saúde e investigar em que medida existem diferenças de género em relação às queixas subjectivas de saúde, à afectividade negativa e à utilização de serviços de saúde.

Foi delineado um estudo transversal no qual uma amostra de 1113 participantes de ambos os sexos (64% mulheres) preencheu um questionário que incluía medidas sobre as queixas subjectivas de saúde, afectividade negativa, utilização de serviços de saúde e informação socio-demográfica.

Os resultados sugerem que, em relação às queixas subjectivas de saúde, as pseudoneurológicas são as que se apresentam mais frequentemente. Quanto às diferenças de género, verificamos que estas existem nas queixas de dores músculo-esqueléticas, pseudoneurologia e alergia, bem como na escala total. Os resultados indicam ainda que são as mulheres que, em média, utilizam mais os serviços de saúde. Não existem diferenças de género na afectividade negativa.

Abordamos neste estudo, um tópico que poderá ter implicações para a saúde, a médio e longo prazo. Julgamos ser um contributo importante para caracterizar o contexto português em termos das queixas subjectivas e fornecer indicadores sobre os comportamentos relacionados com a saúde na população portuguesa, destrinçando as diferenças entre homens e mulheres.

Palavras-chave: Queixas subjectivas de saúde, afectividade negativa, utilização de serviços de saúde, género

 

 

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to investigate what are the subjective health complaints (SHC) in a healthy population and the extent to which there are gender diffe-rences in SHC, in negative affectivity (NA) and in the use of health care services.

This is a cross-sectional design in which 1113 participants (64% female) completed a self-administered questionnaire, including measures of SHC, NA, use of health care services and demographic information. The results indicate that there are gender differences concerning the SHC, and the most frequent were the pseudoneurology complaints, musculoskeletal pain, and allergy, as well as in the total scale. Also, women are more likely to use health care services. There were no gender differences in negative affectivity. This topic of research is an important contribution to characterize the SHC in the Portuguese population, which may have important implications for physical and psychological health. Furthermore, these results may provide relevant information concerning gender differences in health complaints and subsequent health related behaviour.

Key words: Subjective health complaints, negative affectivity, health care utilization, gender

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

REFERÊNCIAS

Barsky, A. J., Peekna, H. M., & Borus, J. F. (2001). Somatic symptom reporting in women and men. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16 (4), 266-275.

        [ Links ]

Bellon, J. A., Delgado, A., Luna, J. D., & Lardelli, P. (1999). Psychosocial and health belief variables associated with frequent attendance in primary care. Psychological Medicine, 29 (6), 1347-1357.

Berkley, K. J. (1997). Sex differences in pain. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20 (3), 371-380.

Croft, P., Rigby, A. S., Boswell, R., Schollum, J., & Silman, A. (1993). The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population. Journal of Rheumatology, 20 (4), 710-713.

Eriksen, H. R., Hellesnes, B., Staff, P., & Ursin, H. (2004). Are subjective health complaints a result of modern civilization? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11 (2), 122-125.

Eriksen, H. R., & Ihlebaek, C. (2002). Subjective health complaints. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43 (2), 101-103.

Eriksen, H. R., Ihlebaek, C., & Ursin, H. (1999). A scoring system for subjective health complaints (SHC). Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 27 (1), 63-72.

Eriksen, H. R., Svendsrød, R., Ursin, G., & Ursin, H. (1998). Prevalence of subjective health complaints in the Nordic European countries in 1993. European Journal of Public Health, 8, 294-298.

Gijsbers van Wijk, C. M., van Vliet, K. P., Kolk, A. M., & Everaerd, W. T. (1991). Symptom sensitivity and sex differences in physical morbidity: a review of health surveys in the United States and the Netherlands. Women & Health, 17, 91-124.

Green, C. A., & Pope, C. R. (1999). Gender, psychosocial factors and the use of medical services: a longitudinal analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 48 (10), 1363-1372.

Ihlebaek, C., Eriksen, H. R., & Ursin, H. (2002). Prevalence of subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 30 (1), 20-29.

Kipen, H. M., & Fiedler, N. (2002). Environmental factors in medically unexplained symptoms and related syndromes: the evidence and the challenge. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110 Suppl 4, 597-599.

Kirmayer, L. J., Robbins, J. M., & Paris, J. (1994). Somatoform disorders: personality and the social matrix of somatic distress. Journal of Abnormal Psychololgy, 103 (1), 125-136.

Kolk, A. M., Hanewald, G. J., Schagen, S., & Gijsbers van Wijk, C. M. (2002). Predicting medically unexplained physical symptoms and health care utilization. A symptom-perception approach. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52 (1), 35-44.

Kroenke, K., & Price, R. K. (1993). Symptoms in the community. Prevalence, classification, and psychiatric comorbidity. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153 (21), 2474-2480.

Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (1998). Gender differences in the reporting of physical and somatoform symptoms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60 (2), 150-155.

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Linzer, M., Hahn, S. R., deGruy, F. V., 3rd, & Brody, D. (1994). Physical symptoms in primary care. Predictors of psychiatric disorders and functional impairment. Archives of Family Medicine, 3 (9), 774-779.

Ladwig, K. H., Marten-Mittag, B., Formanek, B., & Dammann, G. (2000). Gender differences of symptom reporting and medical health care utilization in the German population. European Journal of Epidemiology, 16 (6), 511-518.

Linzer, M., Spitzer, R., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., Hahn, S., Brody, D., & deGruy, F. (1996). Gender, quality of life, and mental disorders in primary care: results from the PRIME-MD 1000 study. American Journal of Medicine, 101 (5), 526-533.

Lynn, R., & Martin, T. (1997). Gender differences in extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in 37 nations. Journal of Social Psychology, 137 (3), 369-373.

Macintyre, S. (1993). Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms. Social Science & Medicine, 36 (1), 15-20.

Macintyre, S., Hunt, K., & Sweeting, H. (1996). Gender differences in health: are things really as simple as they seem? Social Science and Medicine, 42 (4), 617-624.

Osman, L. M., Calder, C., Robertson, R., Friend, J. A., Legge, J. S., & Douglas, J. G. (2000). Symptoms, quality of life, and health service contact among young adults with mild asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 161 (2 Pt 1), 498-503.

Palmer, K. T., Walsh, K., Bendall, H., Cooper, C., & Coggon, D. (2000). Back pain in Britain: comparison of two prevalence surveys at an interval of 10 years. British Medical Journal, 320 (7249), 1577-1578.

Petrie, K. J., Sivertsen, B., Hysing, M., Broadbent, E., Moss-Morris, R., Eriksen, H. R., & Ursin, H. (2001). Thoroughly modern worries: the relationship of worries about modernity to reported symptoms, health and medical care utilization. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51 (1), 395-401.

Picavet, H. S., & Schouten, J. S. (2003). Musculoskeletal pain in the Netherlands: prevalences, consequences and risk groups, the DMC(3)-study. Pain, 102 (1-2), 167-178.

Popay, J., Bartley, M., & Owen, C. (1993). Gender inequalities in health: social position, affective disorders and minor physical morbidity. Social Science & Medicine, 36 (1), 21-32.

Riley, J. L., 3rd, Robinson, M. E., Wise, E. A., Myers, C. D., & Fillingim, R. B. (1998). Sex differences in the perception of noxious experimental stimuli: a meta-analysis. Pain, 74 (2-3), 181-187.

Silverstein, B., & Blumenthal, E. (1997). Depression mixed with anxiety, somatization and disordered eating: relationships with gender-role-related limitations experienced by females. Sex Roles, 36, 709-724.

Torsheim, T., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Hetland, J., Välimaa, R., Danielson, M., & Overpeck, M. (2006). Crossnational variation of gender differences in adolescent subjective health in Europe and North America. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 815-827.

Tveito, T. H., Passchier, J., Duivenvoorden, H. J., & Eriksen, H. R. (2004). Subjective health complaints and health related quality of life in a population of health care workers. Psychology and Health, 19 (2), 247-259.

Ursin, H. (1997). Sensitization, somatization, and subjective health complaints. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4 (2), 105-116.

van Wijk, C. M., & Kolk, A. M. (1997). Sex differences in physical symptoms: the contribution of symptom perception theory. Social Science & Medicine, 45 (2), 231-246.

Vassend, O. (1989). Dimensions of negative affectivity, self-reported somatic symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Social Science & Medicine, 28 (1), 29-36.

Vassend, O., & Skrondal, A. (1999). The role of negative affectivity in self-assessement of health – A structural equation approach. Journal of Health Psychology, 4 (4), 465-482.

Verbrugge, L. M. (1982). Sex differentials in health. Public Health Reports, 97 (5), 417-437.

Verbrugge, L. M. (1985). Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26, 156-182.

Verbrugge, L. M. (1989). The twain meet: empirical explanations of sex differences in health and mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30 (3), 282-304.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (6), 1063-1070.

Watson, D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Health complaints, stress, and distress: exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychological Review, 96 (2), 234-254.

 

(*) Este estudo é parte do projecto de investigação Health Beliefs And Common-Sense Models Of Illness: Implications For Beliefs About Prevention, financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia – POCTI/ FEDER – Ref. 36366/2000.

(**) Departamento de Psicologia, Instituto Piaget, Almada, Portugal. E-mail: nalves@almada.ipiaget.org

(***) Departamento de Psicologia, Instituto Piaget, Almada, Portugal.

 

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons