SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.24 número4Dissociações entre tarefas de memória: Evidência para uma distinção entre as memórias implícita e explícita índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO

Compartilhar


Análise Psicológica

versão impressa ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica v.24 n.4 Lisboa out. 2006

 

Avaliação da eficácia de um programa de treino de visualização mental num escalão de formação desportiva no basquetebol

 

Ana Marques (*)

António Rui Gomes (**)

 

RESUMO

Neste artigo apresentam-se os resultados da implementação de um programa de visualização mental junto de uma equipa de basquetebol do escalão de Cadetes A, ao longo de seis meses, correspondendo a grande parte da época desportiva. A avaliação psicológica foi efectuada ao longo do programa, utilizando-se um plano longitudinal com medidas repetidas, no sentido de observar a frequência e a qualidade da visualização mental (VM). Os resultados sugerem a eficácia do programa desenvolvido, nomeadamente na maior tendência dos atletas aplicarem as técnicas treinadas entre o início e o final da intervenção. Por outro lado, os dados recolhidos sobre as dimensões da VM que mais beneficiaram com a intervenção, indicam um efeito particularmente positivo sobre a capacidade dos atletas anteciparem e prepararem o tipo de acções e movimentações a efectuar durante as competições (função cognitiva geral da VM). No final, são discutidas algumas sugestões para a investigação futura neste domínio da intervenção psicológica.

Palavras-chave: Visualização mental, Psicologia do Desporto, basquetebol.

 

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results and effects of implementing an imagery program with a young athletes’ basketball team, during six months. The psychological evaluation took place during the entire program using longitudinal repeated measures to monitor the frequency and the efficacy of the skill trained. Results suggest the efficacy of the program developed as, throughout the program, an increase is noted on applying the techniques trained. On the other hand, the data collected indicate a particularly positive effect on the athletes’ ability to anticipate and prepare their actions and moves during competition (general cognitive ability). Finally, some suggestions on future investigation on this area are discussed.

Key words: Imagery, Sport Psychology, basketball.

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

REFERÊNCIAS

Atienza, F., & Balaguer, I. (1994). La practica imaginada. In I. Balaguer (Ed.), Entrenamiento psicológico en el deporte. Valencia: Albatros Educación.         [ Links ]

Blair, A., Hall, C., & Leyshon, G. (1993). Imagery effects on the performance of skilled and novice soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, 95-101.

Callow, N., & Hardy, L. (2001). Types of imagery associated with sport confidence in netball players of varying skill levels. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 1-17.

Callow, N., Hardy, L., & Hall, C. (2001). The effects of a motivational general-mastery imagery intervention on the sport confidence of higher-level badminton players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72, 389-400.

Calmels, C., Berthoumieux, C., & d’Arripe-Longueville, F. (2004). Effects of an imagery training program on selective attention of national softball players. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 272-296.

Cox, R. H. (1994). Sport psychology: Concepts and applications. Wisconsin: Brown & Benchmark.

Cruz, J. F. (1997a). Escala de Visualização Mental no Desporto (EVMD). Braga: Universidade do Minho.

Cruz, J. F. (1997b). Questionário de Visualização Mental no Desporto – Voleibol (QVMD-V). Braga: Universidade do Minho.

Cruz, J. F., & Viana, M. (1996). Treino de imaginação e visualização mental. In J. F. Cruz (Ed.), Manual de Psicologia do Desporto. Braga: SHO-Sistemas Humanos e Organizacionais.

Cumming, J., & Hall, C. (2002). Athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 160-172.

Dias, C., Faria, R., & Cruz, J. F. (1999). Questionário de Visualização Mental no Desporto (QVMD). Braga: Universidade do Minho.

Driskell, J. E., Cooper, C., & Moran, A. (1994). Does mental practice enhance performance? Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 481-491.

Evans, L., Jones, L., & Mullen, R. (2004). An imagery intervention during the competitive season with an elite rugby union player. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 252-271.

Feltz, D. L., & Landers, D. M. (1983). The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 25-57.

Feltz, D. L., & Riessinger, C. A. (1990). Effects of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback on self-efficacy and muscular endurance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 123-143.

Gould, D., & Damarjian, N. (1996). Imagery training for peak performance. In J. L. Raalte, & B. W. Brewer (Eds.), Exploring sport and exercise psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hale, B. D. (1982). The effects of internal and external imagery on muscular and ocular concomitants. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 379-387.

Hall, C. R., Mack, D. E., Paivio, A., & Hausenblas, H. A. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 73-89.

Hall, C. R., Rodgers, W., & Barr, K. (1990). The use of imagery by athletes in selected sports. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 1-10.

Hecker, J. E., & Kaczor, L. M. (1998). Application of imagery theory to sport psychology: Some preliminary findings. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 363-373.

Highlen, P. S., & Bennett, B. B. (1983). Elite divers and wrestlers: A comparison between open and closed-skilled athletes. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 390-409.

Kendall, G., Hrycaiko, D., Martin, G. L., & Kendall, T. (1990). The effects of imagery rehearsal, relaxation, and self-talk package on basketball game performance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 157-166.

Lamirand, M., & Rainey, D. (1994). Mental imagery, relaxation, and accuracy of basketball foul shooting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 1229-1230.

Lee, C. (1990). Psyching up for a muscular endurance task: Effects of image content on performance and mood state. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 66-73.

Mahoney, M. J., & Avenet, M. (1977). Psychology of the elite athlete: An exploratory study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 135-141.

Martin, K. A., Moritz, S. E., & Hall, C. R. (1999). Imagery use in sport: A literature review and applied model. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 245-268.

Meacci, W. G., & Price, E. E. (1985). Acquisition and retention of golf putting skill through the relaxation, visualization, and body rehearsal intervention. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 56, 176-179.

Moritz, S. E., Hall, C. R., Martin, K. A., & Vadocz, E. (1996). What are confident athletes imaging?: An examination of image content. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 171-179.

Munroe, K. J., Giacobbi, P. R., Hall, C., & Weinberg, R. (2000). The four Ws of imagery use: Where, when, why, and what. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 119-137.

Murphy, S. M. (1992). Imagery interventions in sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 486-494.

Murphy, S., & Jowdy, D. P. (1992). Imagery and mental practice. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Onestak, D. M. (1991). The effects of progressive relaxation, mental practice, and hypnosis on athletic performance: A review. Journal of Sport Behavior, 14, 247-283.

Paivio, A. (1985). Cognitive and motivational functions of imagery in human performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 22S-28S.

Richardson, A. (1969). Mental imagery. New York: Springer.

Savoy, C., & Beitel, P. (1996). Mental imagery for basketball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27, 454-462.

Shambrook, C. J., & Bull, S. J. (1996). The use of a single-case research design to investigate the efficacy of imagery training. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 8, 27-43.

Short, S. E., Bruggeman, J. M., Engel, S. G., Marback, T. L., Wang, L. J., Willadsen, A., & Short, M. W. (2002). The effect of imagery function and imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance on a goal-putting task. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 48-67.

Suedfeld, P., & Bruno, T. (1990). Flotation REST and imagery in the improvement of athletic performance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 82-85.

Suinn, R. M (1985). Imagery rehearsal applications to performance enhancement. Behavior Therapist, 8, 155-159.

Templin, D. P., & Vernacchia, R. A. (1995). The effect of highlight music videotapes upon the game performance of intercollegiate basketball players. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 41-50.

Vealey, R. S. (1991). Entranamiento en imaginacion para el perfeccionamento de la ejecucion. In J. Williams (Ed.), Psicologia aplicada al deporte. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.

Weinberg, R., & Gould, D. (1995). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

White, A., & Hardy, L. (1998). An in depth analysis of the uses of imagery by high-level slalom canoeists and artistic gymnasts. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 180-191.

Wollman, N. (1986). Research on imagery and motor performance: Three methodological suggestions. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 135-138.

Woolfolk, R., Parrish, W., & Murphy, S. M. (1985). The effects of positive and negative imagery on motor skill performance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 235-241.

Wrisberg, C. A., & Anshel, M. H. (1989). The effect of cognitive strategies on the free throw shooting performance of young athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 3, 95-104.

 

(*) Psicóloga do Desporto.

(**) Instituto de Educação e Psicologia, Universidade do Minho.

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons