SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.22 número3Auto-eficácia na diabetes: Conceito e validação da escalaPerturbações de eliminação na infância e na adolescência (2004): Luísa Barros. Lisboa: Climepsi Editores, Colecção Psicológica 17, 180 pp. índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO

Compartilhar


Análise Psicológica

versão impressa ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica v.22 n.3 Lisboa set. 2004

 

Dificuldade em perceber o lado positivo da vida? Stresse em doentes diabéticos com e sem complicações crónicas da doença (*)

 

ISABEL SILVA (**)

JOSÉ PAIS-RIBEIRO (***)

HELENA CARDOSO (****)

 

 

RESUMO

O presente estudo teve como objectivo perceber se existem diferenças ao nível do stresse entre doentes diabéticos que sofrem de complicações crónicas da doença e doentes sem diagnóstico de sequelas e proceder a uma reflexão sobre o significado de tais diferenças. Foi avaliada uma amostra de conveniência de 316 indivíduos com diabetes, dos quais 55,4% do sexo feminino; com idades compreendidas entre 16 e 84 anos (M=48,39; DP=16,90); variando o seu nível de escolaridade entre zero e 17 anos (M=6,59; DP=4,25), dos quais 59,8% sofria de complicações crónicas da doença. Os doentes com complicações crónicas da diabetes não apresentam maior stresse negativo do que os restantes doentes; contudo, apresentam menor stresse positivo na sua vida ao longo do último ano. Os resultados são discutidos à luz das perspectivas teóricas actuais, nomeadamente do papel do optimismo na hipotética relação entre percepção de stresse e complicações da diabetes.

Palavras-chave: Diabetes, stresse, afecto positivo, optimismo.

 

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to understand and to discuss the perception of stress differences between diabetic patients with chronic complications of disease and diabetic patients without sequel of disease. Participants include 316 diabetic patients, 55.4% female, ages between 16 and 84 years of age (M=48,39; DP=16,90); 59.8% with chronic complications. We do not found differences between the two groups for negative stress perception; however at the level of positive stress perception patients with chronic complication shows lower perception of positive stress. Positive perception of stress events seems to be related with less sequel of disease suggesting that positive characteristics of personality like, for example, optimism, can play an important role in a hypothetical link between stress and chronic complications.

Key words: Diabetes, stress, positive affect, optimism.

 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

 

REFERÊNCIAS

Aikens, J. E., Kiolbasa, T. A., & Sobel, R. (1997). Psychological predictors of glycemic change with relaxation training in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66, 302-306.         [ Links ]

Bradley, C. (1988). Stress and diabetes. In S. Fisher, & J. Reason (Eds.), Handbook of life stress cognition and health (pp. 383-400). Local: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.         [ Links ]

Bradley, C. (1994). Contributions of psychology to diabetes management. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 11-21.         [ Links ]

Burns, D. D., & Eidelson, R. J. (1998). Why are depression and anxiety correlated? A test to the tripartite model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66 (3), 461-473.         [ Links ]

Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., Ketcham, A. S., Moffat, F.L., & Clark, K. C. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: a study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 (2), 375-390.         [ Links ]

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). Optimism. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 231-243). USA: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. (2003). Optimism. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 75-89). USA: American Psychological Association.         [ Links ]

Casteleiro, V. M. (2001). Stressful life events as predictors of Hispanic children's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the University of Miami in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Coral Gables, Florida.         [ Links ]

Clark, D. A., Beck, A. T., & Stewart, B. (1990). Cognitive specificity and positive-negative affectivity: Complementary or contradictory views on anxiety and depression? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99 (2), 148-155.         [ Links ]

Clark, D. A., Steer, R. A., & Beck, A. T. (1994). Common and specific dimensions of self-reported anxiety and depression: Implications for the cognitive and tripartite model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103 (4), 645-654.         [ Links ]

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite Model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100 (3), 316-336.         [ Links ]

Cox, D. J., & Gonder-Frederick, L. A. (1992). Major developmentes in behavioral diabetes research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60 (4), 628-638.         [ Links ]

Czyzewski, D. (1988). Stress management in diabetes mellitus. In M. L. Russell (Ed.), Stress management for chronic disease (pp. 270-288). New York: Pergamon Press.         [ Links ]

de Ridder, D., Fournier, M., & Bensing, J. (2004). Does optimism affect symptom report in chronic disease? What are its consequences for self-care behaviour and physical functioning? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56 (3), 341-350.         [ Links ]

Dewberry, C., & Richardson, S. (1990). Effect of anxiety on optimism. The Journal of Social Psychology, 130 (6), 731-738.         [ Links ]

Feinglos, M. N., Hastedt, P., & Surwit, R. S. (1987). Effects of relaxation therapy on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 10, 72-75.         [ Links ]

Fisher, E. B., Delamater, A. M., Bertelson, A. D., & Kirkley, B. G. (1982). Psychological factors in diabetes and its treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (6), 993-1003.         [ Links ]

Galinha, I., & Pais Ribeiro, J. (2004). Abordagem teórica ao conceito de afecto. In J. Pais Ribeiro, & I. Leal (Eds.), Actas do 5.º Congresso Nacional de Psicologia da Saúde (pp. 51-58). Lisboa: ISPA.         [ Links ]

Gençöz, T. (2002). Discriminant validity of low positive affect: is it specific to depression? Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 991-999.         [ Links ]

Herschbach, P., Duran, G., Waadt, S., Zettler, A., Amm, C., Marten-Mittag, B. et al. (1997). Psychometric properties of the questionnaire on stress in patients with diabetes - revised (QSD-R). Health Psychology, 16 (2), 171-174.         [ Links ]

Lloyd, C. E., Dyer, P. H., Lancashire, R. J., Harris, T., Daniels, J. E., & Barnett, A. H. (1999). Association between stress and glycemic control in adults with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetes Care, 22 (8), 1278-1283.         [ Links ]

Lopez, S. J., Snyder, C. R., & Rasmussen, H. N. (2003). Striking a vital balance: developing a complementary focus on human weakness and strength through positive psychological assessment. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 3-20). USA: American Psychological Association.         [ Links ]

Maddux, J. E. (2002). Stopping the “Madness”. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3-9). USA: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Marshall, G. N., Wortman, C. B., Kusulas, J. W., Hervig, L. K., & Vickers, R. R. (1992). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62 (6), 1067-1074.         [ Links ]

Oliveira, J. H. B. (2004). Psicologia positiva. Porto: Edições ASA.         [ Links ]

Reivich, K., & Gilham, J. (2003). Learned optimism: the measurement of explanatory style. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 57-74). USA: American Psychological Association.         [ Links ]

Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., & Siegel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: development of the life experiences survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (5), 932-946.         [ Links ]

Scheier, M., Carver, C., & Bridges, M. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism ( and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67 (6), 1063-1078.         [ Links ]

Scheier, M. F., Mathews, K. A., Owens J. F., Magovern, G. J., Lefebvre, R. C., Abbott, R. A., & Carver, C. S. (1989). Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: the beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 (6), 1024-1040.         [ Links ]

Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K., & Carver, C. S. (1986). Coping with stress: divergent strategies of optimism and pessimism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6), 1257-1264.         [ Links ]

Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3-9). USA: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csiksentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5-14.         [ Links ]

Silva, I. (2003). Qualidade de vida e variáveis psicológicas associadas a sequelas da diabetes e sua evolução ao longo do tempo. Dissertação apresentada à Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade do Porto para a obtenção do grau de Doutor em Psicologia.         [ Links ]

Silva, I., Pais-Ribeiro, J., Cardoso, H., & Ramos, H. (2003). Contributo para a adaptação da Life Events Survey (LES) à população diabética portuguesa. Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública, 2, 49-60.         [ Links ]

Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hypothesis: there is hope. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope: theory, measures, and applications (pp. 3-21). USA: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3-9). USA: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Surwit, R. S., & Feinglos, M. N. (1983). The effect of relaxation on glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Care, 6, 176-179.         [ Links ]

Surwit, R. S., van Tilburg, M. A. L., Zucker, N., McCaskill, C. C., Parekh, P., Feinglos, M. N. et al. (2002). Stressmanagement improves long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25 (1), 30-34.         [ Links ]

Watson, D. (1988a). Intraindividual and interindividual analyses of positive and negative affect: Their relation to health complaints, perceived stress, and daily activities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (6), 1020-1030.         [ Links ]

Watson, D. (1988b). The vicissitudes of mood measurement: Effects of varying descriptors, time frames, and response formats on measures of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55 (1), 128-141.         [ Links ]

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97 (3), 346-353.         [ Links ]

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (6), 1063-1070.         [ Links ]

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing the Tripartite Model: II Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104 (1), 15-25.         [ Links ]

Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98 (2) 219-235.        [ Links ]

Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatric Scandinavia, 67, 361-370.         [ Links ]

 

 

(*) Trabalho realizado com o apoio da bolsa Praxis XXI BD/21804/9 da Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia.

(**) Hospital Geral de Santo António - Serviço de Endocrinologia.

(***) Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade do Porto.

(****) Hospital Geral de Santo António - Serviço de Endocrinologia e Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar -Universidade do Porto.

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons