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Análise Psicológica

Print version ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica vol.21 no.3 Lisboa July 2003


Crença no mundo justo e vitimização secundária: O papel moderador da inocência da vítima e da persistência do sofrimento (*)






Os estudos apresentados neste artigo têm como objectivo testar a predição básica da teoria da crença no mundo justo (CMJ) de que os observadores com maior CMJ vitimizarão mais uma vítima inocente cujo sofrimento persiste do que os observadores com menor CMJ. De facto, de acordo com esta teoria, a reacção de um observador a uma vítima é influenciada por três factores: o grau de CMJ do observador, a inocência da vítima, e a persistência do sofrimento da vítima. No entanto, até ao momento nenhum estudo tentou determinar o impacto destes três factores em conjunto. Os estudos que apresentamos neste artigo analisam o impacto conjunto dessas três variáveis na vitimização secundária. Os resultados mostraram que os participantes com maior necessidade de restabelecer a CMJ, quer porque é elevada (Estudo 1 e 2) quer porque foi ameaçada (Estudo 3), vitimizam mais a vítima: consideram-na mais merecedora da situação em que se encontra (Estudo 1), numa situação mais justa do que os observadores com menor CMJ (Estudo 2) e desvalorizam-na mais (Estudo 3).

Palavras-chave: Crença no mundo justo, vítimas, vitimização secundária, justiça.



The goal of the studies presented in this article is to test the basic prediction of the belief in a just world (BJW) theory according to which observers that are high believers in a JW victimize more an innocent victim whose suffering persists than observers that are low believers in a JW. In fact, this theory predicts that three factors determine the reaction of an observer towards a victim: the observers' BJW, the innocence of the victim and the persistence of the victim's suffering. However to date no study tried to determine the joint impact of these three factors. The studies presented in this article analyse the joint impact of these three factors on secondary victimization. The results show that participants who most need to re-establish their BJW, either because it is high (Study 1 and 2) or because it has been threatened (Study 3), victimize the victim more: they regard the victim as being more deserving of the situation in which he/she finds himself/herself (Study 1), in a fairer situation than observers with a lower level of BJW (Study 2), and they devalue the victim more (Study 3).

Key words: Belief in a just world, victims, secondary victimization, justice.



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(*) Este trabalho foi parcialmente financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, através dos Programas PRAXIS XXI (Processo PRAXIS/P/PSI/ 12091/98) e POCTI (Processo POCTI/P/PSI/12091/ 98).

(**) ISCTE, Lisboa.


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