SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.21 número3O legado de Harold H. Kelley: o estudo da interdependência e atribuição de causasA dissociação dos efeitos das expectativas nas impressões e memória de pessoas e grupos: o Modelo TRAP índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO

Compartilhar


Análise Psicológica

versão impressa ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica v.21 n.3 Lisboa jul. 2003

 

A regulação da activação de diferentes modos de processamento da informação: O papel do «sentimento de familiaridade» (*)

 

TERESA GARCIA-MARQUES (**)

 

RESUMO

Uma análise descritiva e crítica dos modelos dualistas, que correntemente têm sido desenvolvidos nos campos de estudo da psicologia cognitiva e cognição social, sugere que a maioria destes modelos ignora a questão de regulação da activação/desactivação dos diferentes modos de processamento da informação. Após a discussão da necessidade deste pressuposto relativamente ao postular de um processo de selecção natural, com base no grau de motivação e capacidade do sistema cognitivo, sugerimos que o sentimento de familiaridade pode funcionar como mecanismo de regulação do processamento (FARM).

Palavras-chave: Modelos dualistas, regulação de processamento, sentimento de familiaridade.

 

ABSTRACT

This article presents a critical view of dualistic models developed within social and cognitive psychology arguing that the majority of these models neglect the issue of process activation/deactivation regulation. A discussion of the need of a mechanism of process regulation is developed considering the hypothesis of this regulation being a question of natural selection on the basis of the motivation and capacity characteristics of the system. Arguing for a need of postulating a regulation mechanism the authors suggesting the feeling of familiarity as a regulation mechanism (FARM).

Key words: Dual processes, regulation, familiarity.

 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.

 

 

REFERÊNCIAS

Abelson, R. P. (1994). A personal perspective in social cognition. In P. Devine, D. L. Hamilton, & T. M. Ostrom (Eds.), Social Cognition: Impact on social psychology (pp. 15-37). New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Arkes, H. R., & Freedman, M. R. (1984). A demonstration of the costs and benefits of expertise in recognition memory. Memory and Cognition, 12 (1), 84-89.         [ Links ]

Bargh, J. A. (1994). The four horsemen of automacity: Awareness, intention, efficiency, and control in social cognition. In R. S. Wyer, Jr., & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (2nd ed.,Vol. 1, pp. 1-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Bargh, J. A. (1996). Automaticity in Social Psychology. In E. T. Higgins, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social Psychology. Handbook of basic principles (pp. 169-183). New York: The Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Bargh, J. A., & Thein, R. D. (1985). Individual construct accessibility, person memory, and the recall-judgment link: The case of information overload. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1129-1146.         [ Links ]

Barton, S. B., & Sanford, A. J. (1993). A case study of anomaly detection: Shallow semantic processing and cohesion establishment. Memory and Cognition, 2 (4), 477-487.         [ Links ]

Bobrow, D. G., & Norman, D. A. (1975). Some principles of memory schemata. In D. G. Bobrow, & A. Collins (Eds.), Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science (pp. 131-149). New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Bodenhausen, G. V. (1988). Stereotypic biases in social decision making and memory: Testing process models of stereotype use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 726-737.         [ Links ]

Bodenhausen, G. V. (1993). Emotions, arousal, and stereotypic judgments. A heuristic model of affect and stereotyping. In D. M. Mackie, & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect cognition, and stereotyping. Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 13-33). New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Bornstein, R. F. (1989). Exposure and affect: Overview and Meta-analysis of research, 1968-1978. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 265-289.         [ Links ]

Brewer, M. B. (1988). A dual process model of impression formation. In R. S. Wyer, & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1-44). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.         [ Links ]

Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and communication. London: Pergamon Press.         [ Links ]

Brunner, J. S. (1957). On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review, 64, 123-152.         [ Links ]

Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.) (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Chaiken, S. (1980). Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source versus messages cues in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 752-766.         [ Links ]

Chaiken, S. (1987). The heuristic model of persuasion. In M. P. Zanna, J. M. Olson, & C. P. Herman (Eds.), Social influence: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 5, pp. 3-39). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Chaiken, S., & Eagly, A. H. (1983). Communication modality as a determinant of persuasion: The role of communicator salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 605-614.         [ Links ]

Chaiken, S., Liberman, A., & Eagly, A. H. (1989). Heuristic and systematic processing within and beyond the persuasion context. In J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought: Limits of awareness, intention and control (pp. 212-252). New York: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Chase, W. G., & Simon H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55-81.         [ Links ]

Cheesman, J., & Merikle, P. M. (1986). Distinguish conscious from unconscious mental processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 343-367.         [ Links ]

Clore, G. L. (1992). Cognitive phenomenology: Feelings and the construction of judgment. In L. L. Martin, & A. Tesser (Eds.), The construction of social judgments (pp. 133-163). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Curran, T., & Hintzman, D. L. (1995). Violations of the independence assumption in process dissociation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21 (3), 531-547         [ Links ]

Curran, T., & Hintzman, D. L. (1997). Consequences and causes of correlations in process dissociation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23 (2), 496-504.         [ Links ]

Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 680-690.         [ Links ]

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.         [ Links ]

Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory and Cognition, 7 (2), 149-158.         [ Links ]

Epstein, S. (1973). The self concept revisited: Or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, 28, 404-416.         [ Links ]

Epstein, S. (1990). Cognitive-experiential self-theory. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of Personality Theory and Research (pp. 165-192). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist, 49 (8), 709-724         [ Links ]

Erickson, T. D., & Mattson, M. E. (1981). From words to meaning: A semantic illusion. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20 (5), 540-551.         [ Links ]

Evans, J. St. B. T. (1984). Heuristic and analytic processes in reasoning. British Journal of Psychology, 75, 451-468.         [ Links ]

Evans, J. St. B. T., & Over, D. E. (1996). Rationality and reasoning. Hove, England: Psychology Press.         [ Links ]

Fazio, R. H. (1986). How do attitudes guide behavior? In R. M. Sorrentino, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 204-243). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Fazio, R. H., Powell, M. C., & Herr, P. M. (1983). Towards a process model of the attitude-behavior relation: Accessing one's attitude upon mere observation of the attitude object. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 723-735.         [ Links ]

Fazio, R. H., & Towles-Schwen, T. (1999). The MODE model of attitude-behavior processes. In S. Chai-ken, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 97-116). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Fiske, S. (1982). Schema triggered affect: applications to social perception. In M. S. Clark, & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Affect and Cognition. The seventeenth annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition (pp. 55-78). Hillsday, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Fiske, S. R., & Pavelchak, M. A. (1986). Category-based versus piecemeal-based affective responses: Developments in schema-triggered affect. In R. M. Sorrentino, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 167-203). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Fiske, S. R., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.         [ Links ]

Fiske, S. T. (1988). Compare and contrast: Brewer's dual process model and Fiske et al. continuum model. In Thomas K. Srull, & Robert S. Wyer Jr. (Eds.), A dual process model of impression formation. Advances in social cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 65-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Fiske, S., & Neuburg, S. L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation form category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 1-74). San Diego: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Garcia-Marques, T. (1999). The mind needs the heart. The mood-as-a-regulation-mechanism hypothesis. Dissertação de Doutoramento apresentada na Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Lisboa.         [ Links ]

Garcia-Marques, T. (2001). À procura de distinção entre cognição, afecto, emoção, estado de espírito e sentimento. Psicologia: Teoria, Investigação e Prática, 2, 253-268.         [ Links ]

Garcia-Marques, T., Mackie, D. M., & Garcia-Marques, L. (submetido a publicação). Familiarity feels positive.         [ Links ]

Garcia-Marques, T., & Mackie, D. M. (2000). The positive feeling of familiarity: Mood as an information processing regulation mechanism. In J. Forgas, & H. Bless (Eds.), The message within: The role of subjective experiences in social cognition and behavior. Philadelphia: Psychological Press.         [ Links ]

Garcia-Marques, T., & Mackie, D. M. (2001). The feeling of familiarity as a regulator of persuasive processing. Social Cognition, 19 (1), 9-34.         [ Links ]

Gigerenzer, G., & Regier, T. (1996). How do we tell an association from a rule? Comment on Sloman (1996). Psychological Bulletin, 119 (1), 23-26.         [ Links ]

Gilovich, T., Griffin, D., & Kahneman, D. (2002).Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.         [ Links ]

Griffin, D. W., Gonzalez, R., & Varey, C. (2001). The heursitic and biases approach to judgment under uncertainty. In N. Schwarz, & A. Tesser (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual processes (207-235). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.         [ Links ]

Hastie, R., & Kumar, A. P. (1979). Person memory: Personality traits as organizing principles in memory for behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 25-38.         [ Links ]

Higgins, E. T. (1989). Knowledge accessibility and activation: subjectivity and suffering from unconscious sources. In J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 75-123). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Higgins, E. T. (1996). Knowledge activation: Accessibility, Applicability and salience. In E. T. Higgins, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social Psychology. Handbook of basic principles (pp. 133-167). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1987). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 369-425.         [ Links ]

Higgins, E. T., & Brendel, M. (1995). Accessibility and applicability: Some «activation rules» influencing judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 218-243.         [ Links ]

Higgins, E. T., Bargh, J. A., & Lombardi, W. (1985). The nature of priming effects in categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 11, 59-69.         [ Links ]

Higgins, E. T., Rholes, W. S., & Jones, C. R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13 (2), 141-154.         [ Links ]

Hintzman, D. L. (1984). MINERVA 2: A simulation model of human memory. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 16, 96-101.         [ Links ]

Hintzam, D. L. (1986). «Schema abstraction» in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review, 93, 411-428.         [ Links ]

Hintzman, D. L. (1988). Judgments of frequency and recognition memory in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review, 95, 528-551.         [ Links ]

Humphreys, M. S., Bain, J. D., & Pike, R. (1989). Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: A theory for episodic, semantic, and procedural tasks. Psychological Review, 96, 208-233.         [ Links ]

Jacoby, L. L., & Brooks (1984). Nonanalytic cogntiion: memory, perception and concept learning. In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (vol. 18, pp. 1-47). New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Jacoby, L. L. (1983). Remembering the data: Analyzing interactive processes in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 485-508.         [ Links ]

Jacoby, L. L., Yonelinas, P., & Jennings, J. M. (1997). The relation between conscious and unconscious (automatic) influences: a declaration of independence. In J. D. Cohen, & J. W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness (pp. 13-48). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Jacoby, L. L., & Kelley, C. M. (1987). Unconscious influences of memory for a prior event. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 314-336.         [ Links ]

Jacoby, L. L., & Kelley, C. M. (1990). An episodic view of motivation: Unconscious influences of memory. In E. T. Higgins, & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 201-233). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P., Yonelinas, A. P., & Debner, J. A. (1994). The relationship between consciousand unconscious influences: Independence or redundancy? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123 (2), 216-219.         [ Links ]

James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Dover.         [ Links ]

Johnson, M. K., & Hasher, L. (1987). Human learning and memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 631-668.         [ Links ]

Johnson, M. K., & Reeder, J. A. (1997). Consciousness as meta-processing. In J. D. Cohen, & J. W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness (pp. 261-293). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Johnston, W. A., & Hawley, K. J. (1994). Perceptual inhibition of expected inputs: The key that opens closed minds. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 56-72.         [ Links ]

Johnston, W. A., & Hawley, K. J. (1994). Perceptual inhibition of expected inputs: The key that opens closed minds. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 56-72.         [ Links ]

Jones, G. V. (1987). Independence and exclusivity among psychological processes: Implication for the structure of recall. Psychological Review, 94, 229-235.         [ Links ]

Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.         [ Links ]

Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 49-81). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.         [ Links ]

Kahneman, D., & Treisman, A. (1984). Changing views of attention and automaticity. In R. Parasuraman (Ed.), Varieties of attention (pp. 29-61). New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.         [ Links ]

Kelley, C. M., & Jacoby, L. (2000). Recollection and familiarity. Process- Dissociation. In E. Tulving, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 215-244). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Lerner, & Tetlock (1999). Acconting for the effects of accountability. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 255-275.         [ Links ]

Logan, G. D. (1988). Towards an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review, 95, 492-527.         [ Links ]

Logan, G. D. (1989). Automaticity and cognitive control. In J. S. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 52-74). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Logan, G. D. (1991). Automaticity and memory. In W. E. Hockley, & S. Lewandowsky (Eds.), Relating theory and data: Essays on human memory in honour of Bennet B. Murdock (pp. 347-366). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Logan, G. D., & Cowan, W. B. (1984). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A theory of an act of control. Psychological Review, 91 (3), 295-327.         [ Links ]

Mackie, D. M., Asuncion, A. G., & Rosselli, F. (1992). The impact of positive affect on persuasion processes. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Emotion and social behavior. Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 247-270). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.         [ Links ]

Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review, 87, 252-271.         [ Links ]

Mandler, G. (1981). The recognition of previous encounters. American Scientist, 69 (2), 211-218.         [ Links ]

McClelland, J. J., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part I. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375-407.         [ Links ]

Monahan, J. L., Murphy, S. T, & Zajonc, R B. (2000). Subliminal mere exposure: Specific, general, and diffuse effects. Psychological Science, 11 (6), 462-466.         [ Links ]

Nadel, L. (1994). Multiple memory systems: What and why, an update. In D. L. Schacter, & E. Tulving (Eds.), Memory systems (pp. 39-64). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.         [ Links ]

Neuberg, S. L., & Fiske, S. T. (1987). Motivational influences on impression formation: Outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 431-444.         [ Links ]

Nhouyvanisvong, A., & Reder, L. M. (1998). Rapid feeling-of-knowing: A strategy selection mechanism. In V. Y. Yzerbyt, G. Lories, & B. Dardenne (Eds.), Metacognition. Cognitive and social dimension (pp. 35-52). London: Sage Publications.         [ Links ]

Norman, D. A., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1975). Explorations in cognition. San Francisco: Freeman.         [ Links ]

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown.         [ Links ]

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 124-203). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Pittman, T. S. (1992). Perception without awareness in the stream of behavior: Processes that produce and limit nonconscious biasing effects. In R. F. Bornstein, & T. S. Pittman (Eds.), Perception without awareness (pp. 277-296). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). Facilitation and inhibition in the processing of signals. In P. M. A. Rabbit, & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and Performance V (pp. 669-682). New York: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118 (3), 219-235.         [ Links ]

Reber, A. S., Winkielman, P., & Schwarz, N. (1998). Effects of perceptual fluency on affective judgments. Psychological Science, 9, 45-48.         [ Links ]

Reder, L. M., & Anderson, J. R. (1980). A partial resolution of the paradox of interference: The role of integrating knowledge. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 447-472.         [ Links ]

Reder, L. M. (1987). Strategy selection in question answering. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 90-138.         [ Links ]

Reder, L. M., & Ritter, F. E. (1992). What determines initial feelings of knowing? Familiarity with question terms not with the answer. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 435-451.         [ Links ]

Roediger, H. L. (1990). Review of Remembering reconsidered: Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory. American Journal of Psychology, 103, 403-409         [ Links ]

Roediger, H. L., & Blaxton, T. A. (1987). Retrieval modes produce dissociations in memory for surface information. In D. S. Gorfien, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), Memory and cognitive processes: The Ebbinghaus centennial conference (pp. 349-379). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Rojahn, K., & Pettigrew, T. F. (1992). Memory for schema-relevant information: A meta-analytic resolution. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 81-110.         [ Links ]

Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. (1994). What are the memory systems of 1994? In Daniel L. Schacter, & Endel Tulving (Eds.), Memory systems (pp. 1-38). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.         [ Links ]

Schmidt, H. G., & Boshuizen, H. P. (1993). On acquiring expertise in medicine. Special Issue: European educational psychology. Educational Psychology Review, 5 (3), 205-221.         [ Links ]

Schunn, C. D., Reder, L. M., Nhouyvanisvong, A., Richards, D. R., & Stroffolino (1997). To calculate or not to calculate: A source activation confusion model of problem familiarity's role in strategy selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23 (1), 3-29.         [ Links ]

Schwarz, N. Bless, H., & Bohner, G. (1991). Mood and persuasion: Affective states influence the processing of persuasive communications. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 24, pp. 161-199). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.         [ Links ]

Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1996). Feelings and Phenomenal Experiences. In E. T. Higgins, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology. Handbook of basic principles (pp. 433-465). New York, NY: Guilford Press.         [ Links ]

Sherman, S. J., Mackie, D. M., & Driscoll, D. M. (1990). Priming and the differential use of dimensions in evaluation. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 16, 405-418.         [ Links ]

Shiffrin, R. M. (1997). Attention, automatism, and consciousness. In J. D. Cohen, & J. W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness (pp. 49-64). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Sloman, S. A. (2002). Two systems of reasoning. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 379-396). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.         [ Links ]

Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 3-22.         [ Links ]

Smith, E. R. (1994). Procedural knowledge and processing strategies in social cognition. In R. S. Wyer, & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 99-151). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.         [ Links ]

Smith, E. R., & Branscombe, N. R. (1987). Procedurally mediated social inferences: The case of category accessibility effects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 361-382.         [ Links ]

Smith, E. R., & DeCoster, J. (2000). Dual process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 108-131.         [ Links ]

Smith, E. R., & Zarate, M. A. (1992). Exemplar-based model or social judgment. Psychological Review, 99, 3-21.         [ Links ]

Smith, E. R., Branscombe, N. R., Bormann, C. (1988). Generality of effects of practice on social judgments tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 385-395.         [ Links ]

Smith, E. R., Stewart, T. L., & Buttram, R. T. (1992). Inferring a trait from a behavior has long-term, highly specific effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 753-759.         [ Links ]

Smith, E., Garcia-Marques, T., Miller, D. A., & Mackie, D. (submetido a publicação). Familiarity Can Increase Stereotyping.         [ Links ]

Srinivas, K., & Roediger, H. L. (1990). Classifying implicit memory tests: Category association and anagram solution. Journal of Memory and Language, 29 (4), 389-412.         [ Links ]

Srull, T. K., & Wyer, R. S., Jr. (1979). The role of category accessibility in the interpretation of information about persons: Some determinants and implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1660-1672.         [ Links ]

Stangor, C., & McMillan, D. (1992). Memory for expectancy-congruent and expectancy-incongruent information: A review of the social and developmental literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 42-61.         [ Links ]

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2002). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 421-440). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.         [ Links ]

Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645-665.         [ Links ]

Tichener, E. B. (1910). A textbook of psychology. New York: Macmillan.         [ Links ]

Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Winkielman, P., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2001). Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: Psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitation elicits positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (6), 989-1000.         [ Links ]

Yonelinas, A. P. (1994). Receiver-operating characteristics in recognition memory: Evidence for a dual-process model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20 (6), 1341-1354.         [ Links ]

Yonelinas, A. P., Regehr, G., & Jacoby, L. L. (1995). Incorporating response bias in a dual-process theory of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 34 (6), 821-835.         [ Links ]

Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monographs, 9 (2, Pt. 2), 1-27.         [ Links ]

 

 

(*) A preparação deste artigo foi feita com o suporte da FCT, pelo financiamento do projecto POCTI/ PSI/42239/2001. Agradeço a Leonel Garcia-Marques os comentários feitos a uma versão anterior, e Gabriela Ferreira, a revisão linguística.

Correspondência relativa a este artigo pode ser dirigida a Teresa Garcia-Marques, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041 Lisboa ou, ainda, por correio electrónico para gmarques@ispa.pt

(**) Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa.

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons