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Análise Psicológica

versão impressa ISSN 0870-8231

Aná. Psicológica v.18 n.1 Lisboa  2000

 

Processo gravídico, parto e prematuridade: Uma discussão teórica do ponto de vista do psicólogo

Rui C. Campos (*)

 

RESUMO

Este trabalho apresenta a gravidez segundo a conceptualização de alguns autores, como um período de crise maturacional, onde ocorre um processo de desenvolvimento psicológico por fases, ao longo dos três trimestres, com objectivos e tarefas psíquicas definidas. Hipotetizamos que perturbações, como uma paragem ou bloqueio, nesse processo de desenvolvimento gravídico, poderão resultar na ocorrência do parto prematuro, e que o prosseguir do processo até ao final, mas de forma conturbada, pode contribuir para complicações no desenrolar do parto de termo ou para distúrbios no pós-parto. São apresentados alguns estudos sobre a influência de factores psicológicos no parto prematuro, nas complicações do parto de termo e nos distúrbios emocionais do pós-parto. São revistos e discutidos alguns estudos que descrevem o ambiente físico, as manipulações a que são sujeitos os bebés nas Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, as consequências desse ambiente e manipulações para os bebés prematuros e de baixo peso, bem como as alterações que se podem implementar nessas unidades. Finalmente, apresentamos alguns estudos sobre os programas de estimulação suplementar e de redução do stress, os seus efeitos a curto e a longo prazo, e discutimos ainda a influência que a relação pais-bebé pode ter na eficácia dos pro-gramas de estimulação e no desenvolvimento destes bebés. Ao longo do artigo e no final são tecidas considerações sobre o papel do psicólogo clínico na prevenção e intervenção terapêutica durante e após a gravidez.

Palavras-chave: Processo gravídico, parto prematuro, factores psicológicos, parto, bebés prematuros e de baixo peso, programas de estimulação, interacção pais-bebé.

 

ABSTRACT

These article presents pregnancy, following the conceptualization of some authors, as a crisis maturation period, during which a psychological developmental process occurs by phases, within the three trimesters, with defined psychological goals and tasks. We propose that disruptions, in the developmental process can result in the ocurrence of premature birth, and that the continuation of the process but in a disturbed way, can contribute to term-delivery complications or to post-term emotional disturbances. We present some studies about the influence of psychological factors in premature birth, in term-delivery complications and in the emotional disturbances of post-delivery. We review and discuss some studies that describe the physical environment of the Intensive Care Units, the manipulations and the consequences for the premature anl low birthweight babies, as well as the modifications that can be implemented in those units. Finaly, we present some studies about aditional stimulation and stress-reduction programs, their short and long-term effects, and discuss the influences that the parent-child relationship can have in the eficacy of those programs, and in the development of those babies. We make some considerations about the role of the clinical psychologist in prevention and therapeutics during and after pregnancy.

Key words: Pregnancy process, premature birth, psychological factors, term-delivery, premature and low birthweight babies, stimulation programs, parent-baby interaction.

 

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(*) Departamento de Pedagogia e Educação, Universidade de Évora, Palácio da Inquisição, 7002-554 Évora. Psicólogo Clínico no Instituto de Psicologia das Relações Humanas.

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