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Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola

versão impressa ISSN 0254-0223

Ciência Téc. Vitiv. v.23 n.2 Dois Portos  2008

 

Revisão: as bactérias do ácido láctico do vinho– Parte I

 

António Inês1, Tania Tenreiro2, Rogério Tenreiro2, Arlete Mendes-Faia1

 

1IBB-Centro de Genética e Biotecnologia (IBB-CGB), Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-813 Vila Real, Portugal

2Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genómica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Edifício ICAT,Campus da FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal

(Manuscrito recebido em 28.11.08. Aceite para publicação em 03.12 .08)

 

 

RESUMO

A fermentação maloláctica (FML), prática corrente em vinificação, é um processo de desacidificação biológica, realizado por bactérias do ácido láctico (BAL). A complexidade e diversidade da actividade metabólica das BAL sugerem que a FML pode afectar positiva ou negativamente a qualidade do produto final. Nesta revisão apresenta-se uma caracterização geral das BAL em termos de taxonomia, metabolismo, habitats e aplicações industriais e o estado-da-arte sobre as BAL do vinho e do seu papel no processo de vinificação. Os efeitos benéficos (hidrólise dos glucosídeos pela acção de β-glucosidases) e nocivos (degradação da arginina e formação de carbamato de etilo; formação de aminas biogénicas, nomeadamente histamina, tiramina e putrescina) das BAL do vinho, bem como a temática das culturas ‘starter’, são igualmente explorados para ilustrar o interesse enológico deste grupo particular de microrganismos.

Palavras-chave: bactérias do ácido láctico, fermentação maloláctica, â-glucosidases, aminas biogénicas, vinho

 

 

SUMMARY

Review: wine lactic acid bacteria - Part I

Malolactic fermentation (MLF), the deacidification carried by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), is a longstanding process in winemaking and the complexity and diversity of the metabolic activity of LAB suggest that MLF can positively or negatively affect the quality of the final product. This review presents a general characterization of LAB in terms of taxonomy, metabolism, habitats and industrial applications, followed by a state-of-the-art on wine LAB and their role in the winemaking process. A particular emphasis is presented on the beneficial (the hydrolysis of glucosides by ?-glucosidases) and harmful effects (the degradation of arginine and formation of ethyl carbamate; the formation of biogenic amines such as histamine, tyramine and putrescine) of wine LAB, as well as on the issue of starter cultures, to illustrate their oenological interest.

Key words: lactic acid bacteria, malolactic fermentation, â-glucosidases, biogenic amines, wine

 

 

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