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Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola

versão impressa ISSN 0254-0223

Ciência Téc. Vitiv. v.18 n.2 Dois Portos  2003

 

Effect of Wine Style and Winemaking Technology on Resveratrol Levels in Wines

 

Baoshan Sun1, Cristina Ferrão2 and M. Isabel Spranger1

 

1Estação Vitivinícola Nacional, Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e das Pescas, 2565-191 DOIS PORTOS, Portugal, E-mail: inia.evn.quim@oninet.pt

2 Student of “Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro” . 5001 VILA REAL. Portugal

(Manuscrito recebido em 30.12.03 . Aceite para publicação em 28.01.04.)

 

 

SUMMARY

Resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene) is a stilbenic phytoalexin produced by grapevines in response to fungal infection or abiotic stress. Much interest has focused, during the last ten years, on its potent antioxidant activities, which may be associated with health benefit for moderate wine consumers. In this work, a method for analysis of trans- and cis-resveratrol of wines by HPLC was developed. Using this method, cis- and trans-resveratrol concentration in different styles of wines (white, rosé and red wines) from several regions of Portugal was determined, and the effects of different winemaking technologies (carbonic maceration, skin fermentation with stem and skin fermentation without stem) on the resveratrol content in wines made from single variety Castelão (Vitis vinifera L.) were studied. The developed method appeared specific, practical, sensitive and selective. Red wines present the highest trans-and cis-resveratrol concentration, followed by rosé wines, while the white wines present the lowest amount of the two isomers, indicating that the resveratrol concentration is dependent on the wine style, which would be associated essentially with maceration of grape solids. The winemaking technology also affects the resveratrol content in wines. Resveratrol concentrations in the wines made by traditional winemaking technologies (fermentation with stems and fermentation without stems) were significantly higher than those in wines made by carbonic maceration. However, there was no significant difference in resveratrol concentrations between stem-contact wines and non stemcontact wine, suggesting that the stems contribute little resveratrol to wines. In addition, prolonged maceration after alcoholic fermentation did not affect the resveratrol concentrations in wines, suggesting that the extraction of resveratrol was complete during or at the end of alcoholic fermentation.

Key words: Resveratrol, wine, HPLC, winemaking technology.

 

RESUMO

Efeito do tipo do vinho e da tecnologia de vinificação no teor de resveratrol dos vinhos

O resveratrol (3,5,4’ – tri-hidroxiestilbeno) é uma fitoalexina, produzida pela videira como resposta à infecção fúngica ou ao stress abiótico. Durante os últimos dez anos, acentuou-se o interesse pelas suas actividades antioxidantes, provavelmente associado ao benefício que o consumo moderado de vinho pode trazer à saúde humana. No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um método para a análise do cis-e trans-resveratrol do vinho por HPLC foi desenvolvido. Com base nesse método, efectuou-se a quantificação do resveratrol nos três tipos de vinhos (vinhos brancos, vinhos rosés e vinhos tintos) oriundo de diversos regiões de Portugal, e estudou-se os efeitos de diferentes tecnologias de vinificação (maceração carbónica, curtimenta com engaço e curtimenta sem engaço) sobre o teor de resveratrol em vinhos da casta Castelão (Vitis vinifera L.). O método desenvolvido demonstrou ser prático, sensível, selectivo e específico. Os vinhos tintos apresentaram teores de resveratrol mais elevados, seguidos pelos vinhos rosés, enquanto os vinhos brancos apresentavam os menores teores destes compostos. Este resultado indica que os teores de resveratrol dependem do tipo de vinho, o que pode ser associado principalmente ao tempo de maceração. O tipo de tecnologias de vinificação também afectam a concentração deste composto no vinho. As concentrações do resveratrol nos vinhos obtidos por vinificação clássica (curtimenta com ou sem engaço) são mais elevadas do que nos vinhos de maceração carbónica. Contudo, não é observada diferença significativa entre os teores de resveratrol de vinhos de curtimenta com engaço e os vinhos de curtimenta sem engaço, o que parece indicar que os engaços pouco contribuem para o teor de resveratrol dos vinhos. Por outro lado, o aumento do tempo de maceração após a fermentação alcoólica não influencía a concentração deste composto no vinho, sugerindo que a extração do resveratrol se completou durante fermentação alcoólica.

Palavras chave: Resveratrol, vinho, HPLC, tecnologia de vinificação.

 

RÉSUMÉ

Influence du type de vin et de la technologie de vinification sur la concentration du resveratrol dans les vins

Le resvératrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbène) est une phytoalexine stilbènique produisée par la vigne à la réponse à l’infection fongique ou stress abiotique. Beaucoup d’intérêt a été concentré, pendant la dernière dix années, sur ses activités antioxydants, qui pourrait être associées au fait que la consumation modérée du vin é favorable à la santé humane. Dans le présent travail, une méthode modifiée pour l’analyse de cis-et trans-resvératrol du vin par HPLC a été développée. Par cette méthode, cis-et trans-resvératrol dans les différents types du vin (Vins blancs, vins rosés et vins rouges) de divers régions du Portugal a été dosée, et les effets de différentes technologies de vinification (macération carbonique, fermentation avec rafles et fermentation sans rafles) sur la concentration de resvératrol dans les vins du cépage monovariétal – Castelão (Vitis vinifera L.) ont été étudiés. La méthode développée paraissait spécifique, pratique, sensitive et selective. Les vins rouges présentent la teneur en cis-et trans-resvératrol le plus élevée que les vins rosés, tandis que les vins blancs présentent une concentration de cis-et trans-resvératrol le plus basse. Ce résultat indique que la teneur en resvératrol dépend du type de vin, qui pourrait être associés essentiellement avec le temps de la macération. Le type de technologies de vinification influence aussi la teneur en resvératrol dans les vins. Les concentrations du resvératrol dans les vins faite par vinification classique (fermentation avec ou sans rafles) étaient significativement plus élevées que celles dans les vins de macération carbonique. Cependant, la différence significative en concentration du resvératrol entre les vins faites par fermentation avec rafles et les vins faites par fermentation sans rafles n’été pas observée, suggérant que les rafles contribuent peu avec resvératrol pour les vins. De plus, prolongation du temps de macération après la fermentation alcoolique n’influence pas la teneur en resvératrol dans les vins faites par fermentation avec rafles, suggérant que l’extraction du resvératrol avait été complète pendant la fermentation alcoolique.

 

 

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