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CUNHA, Miguel Pina e  and  REGO, Arménio. Inversion is the Movement of the Tao: A dialectical analysis of organizational effecttiveness. Psicologia [online]. 2007, vol.21, n.1, pp.107-131. ISSN 0874-2049.

Discussions on organizational effectiveness frequently transmit the idea that some organizations are more effective than others. In this work we challenge this idea and suggest that some organizations may be more effective than others but are becoming something else. Effectiveness is viewed, as such, as a process rather than as a stable state. To explore this perspective, we use the ancient Chinese philosophy of Taoism. Some simple notions are considered to discuss how effectiveness and efficiency, more than independent states, can instead be taken as two faces of the same process.

Keywords : effectiveness; in­effectiveness; taoism; paradoxes; organizational processes.

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