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Portuguese Journal of Nephrology & Hypertension

Print version ISSN 0872-0169


MARTINS, Joana M. et al. The role of alteplase in preventing relapsing and repeat peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis. Port J Nephrol Hypert [online]. 2019, vol.33, n.1, pp.10-13. ISSN 0872-0169.

Introduction: Peritonitis is a common complication in peritoneal dialysis, playing a weighty role in patient morbidity and a major cause of transfer to hemodialysis Relapsing or repeat episodes are associated with the development of a biofilm-trapping bacteria, and catheter removal is recommended in these cases. Since October of 2013 our peritoneal dialysis unit has developed a protocol that adds a fibrinolytic agent to an intraperitoneal antibiotic, aiming to reduce the number of relapsing/repeat episodes. Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of associating a fibrinolytic agent to intraperitoneal antibiotics in the prevention of relapsing or repeat peritonitis. Methodology: Observational study comparing the number of relapsing/repeat peritonitis events between two groups during a four-year period: a historic one, treated with intraperitoneal antibiotics only (control group) and one group that received an association of intraperitoneal antibiotics with alteplase (alteplase group). Secondary and fungi peritonitis were excluded from this study. Results: During the study period, a total of 103 peritonitis episodes were registered (control group: 61 episodes; alteplase group: 42 episodes) corresponding to 17 relapsing/repeat events, with statistical significance between groups (control group: 15 episodes (24.6%); alteplase group: 2 episodes (4,7%); p=0.008). There was no difference in demographic characteristics or the presence of exit site infection between the groups. The microorganisms most frequently involved in relapsing/repeat episodes were S.epidermidis and E.coli. Regarding the outcomes of the treatment, no patient in the alteplase group had to undergo catheter removal due to relapsing/repeat episodes of peritonitis. There were no adverse events following alteplase administration. Three deaths due to peritonitis-related sepsis were registered. Conclusion: Although relapsing/repeat peritonitis are still an important cause of catheter removal, this study demonstrates the potential benefit of fibrinolytic association with intraperitoneal antibiotics in preventing these events and potentially reducing modality drop-out.

Keywords : peritoneal dialysis; peritonitis; tissue plasminogen activator.

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