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Análise Psicológica

Print version ISSN 0870-8231On-line version ISSN 1646-6020


GARCIA-MARQUES, Teresa  and  BARTOLO-RIBEIRO, Rui. The closed-ended questions formats: The nature, validity and reliability of their responses. Aná. Psicológica [online]. 2020, vol.38, n.2, pp.000-000. ISSN 0870-8231.

This paper aims to support researchers in the decisions about the use of closed answer questions in their questionnaires by critically reviewing the literature regarding the implications of such decisions for the nature, validity and reliability of the measure. This literature’s review provides arguments for the researcher to decide on how best to operationalize their variables through a closed response. Arguments presented support decision-making in the construction of response options to be provided to the respondent, and the type of scale to be used: graphical or non-graphical; categories or continuous assessment; with 3 or more points; with or without labels and in this case, with what kind of labels, etc. Other topics are illustrated to be considered for construction of a response scale analyzing the specific case in which “perceived frequencies” are measured.

Keywords : Assessment scales; Questionnaires; Bias.

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