Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=1646-887220160002&lang=en vol. 16 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>Overtopping of a harbour structure protected by a submerged breakwater</b>: <b>Leixões Harbour, Portugal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O galgamento de estruturas portuárias consiste na passagem de água sobre o coroamento da estrutura pela ação da agitação marítima e é um dos fenómenos com maior impacto na integridade da estrutura e na segurança da zona por ela protegida. O principal objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o galgamento num quebra-mar de taludes, com um importante muro cortina, protegido por um quebra-mar submerso. Em particular, pretende-se otimizar a geometria do quebra-mar submerso situado a barlamar do quebra-mar de taludes, no qual se pretende diminuir o galgamento. A estrutura marítima em estudo é o molhe norte do Porto de Leixões, em frente ao qual já existe um quebra-mar submerso na zona da cabeça. Pretende-se estender a zona do molhe protegida pelo quebra-mar submerso e, para tal, é necessário estudar qual a melhor geometria e posição a adotar para este quebra-mar. Para estudar a influência da geometria e da posição do quebra-mar submerso no galgamento do molhe norte, utilizou-se o modelo numérico IH2VOF. Simularam-se três condições de agitação regular, que diferem somente na altura de onda, e sete geometrias do quebra-mar submerso, que diferem da configuração original (a existente atualmente) em três características: a distância entre o quebra-mar submerso e o molhe, a cota de coroamento do quebra-mar submerso e a sua largura de coroamento. Com a realização deste estudo, para as condições de agitação consideradas, verificou-se que as características com maior impacto na redução do galgamento no molhe norte do Porto de Leixões são: o aumento da distância entre o quebra-mar submerso e o molhe e o aumento da cota de coroamento do quebra-mar submerso. O caudal médio de galgamento para as condições de agitação em estudo reduziu-se de um valor máximo de 0,71 l/s/m para a configuração original para 0,02 l/s/m em duas das novas configurações analisadas, ou seja, uma redução de 97% face à configuração original.<hr/>Overtopping of a harbour structure protected by a submerged breakwater: Leixões Harbour, Portugal Overtopping of port structures, which is the passage of water over the structure crest due to wave action, is one of the phenomena that has the greatest impact on the structure integrity and on the safety of the protected area. The main goal of this research is to study the wave overtopping of a rubble-mound breakwater, with an important wave return wall, protected by a submerged breakwater. In particular, the study aims to optimize the geometry of the submerged breakwater located in front of the rubble-mound breakwater, in order to reduce its overtopping. The studied structure is the northern breakwater of the Port of Leixões, Portugal, which is already protected by a submerged breakwater near the port entrance. The study proposes to extend the protected zone of the northern breakwater. In order to do so, it is necessary to analyse the best geometry for this submerged breakwater and its distance to the protected structure. To study the influence of the submerged breakwater geometry and location on the overtopping of the rubble-mound breakwater the IH2VOF model was used. Three regular wave conditions were studied, with different wave heights only. Seven geometries for the submerged breakwater were considered, which differed from the original configuration (the geometry which already exists) in three characteristics: the distance between the submerged and the main breakwaters and the submerged breakwater crest level and width. For the wave conditions considered, the characteristics that had the greatest impact on reducing the overtopping of the main breakwater of the Port of Leixões were: the increase of the distance between the submerged and the main breakwaters and the increase of the crest level of the submerged breakwater. The mean overtopping discharge for the studied wave conditions was reduced from a maximum value of 0.71 l/s/m for the original configuration to 0.02 l/s/m in two of the analysed new configurations, which corresponds to a 97% overtopping reduction compared to the original configuration. <![CDATA[<b>Oceanographic Condition, Use and Occupation of The Salinópolis Coastline (Corvina - Atalaia Sector), Northeastern of Pará, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As zonas costeiras são áreas sob grande estresse ambiental, devido à excessiva exploração de seus recursos naturais, uso desordenado do solo e a influência de agentes oceanográficos (ondas, marés, correntes), meteorológicos (ventos, tempestades), hidrológicos (rios, aquífero, oceano) e antrópicos (habitação, indústria, turismo, lazer). As praias são os ambientes mais dinâmicos e mais apreciados para uso e ocupação humana nas zonas costeiras. No Nordeste do Estado do Pará (Brasil), Salinópolis destaca-se como um dos municípios mais populosos e freqüentados por turistas. O maior problema atual no âmbito do gerenciamento costeiro são as ocupações irregulares em áreas de risco sujeitas a erosão. Este artigo analisa as condições oceanográficas nas praias de Salinópolis (Corvina, Maçarico, Farol Velho e Atalaia), e as atividades relacionadas ao lazer e ocupação imobiliária. Foram coletados dados oceanográficos durante dois períodos (26, 27 e 28/04/2013 - estação chuvosa - e 04, 05 e 06/10/2013 - estação menos chuvoso) e, em 12/07/2014 - alta temporada turística - foi feita a análise dos aspectos de uso e ocupação da costa e aplicação de entrevistas/questionários com banhistas. Para caracterização oceanográfica foram utilizados métodos observacionais e instrumentais de medições de ondas e correntes, além de coleta de sedimentos superficiais para complementar a identificação de estados morfodinâmicos de praia. Critérios de classificação de orla oceânica com base no decreto nº 5.300/2004 visaram a compartimentação da costa de Salinópolis em termos de urbanização. Atualmente, a orla oceânica de Salinópolis possui diferentes características quanto à utilização e conservação, abrangendo desde a tipologia de orlas naturais (Classe A) às orlas com urbanização consolidada (Classe C). A primeira ocorre nos extremos da área de estudo e, a segunda, na região da sede municipal. Quatro tipos de praias foram definidos segundo a exposição marítima e o grau das condições oceanográficas: tipo 1 (Maçarico), tipo 2 (Corvina), tipo 3 (Farol Velho) e tipo 4 (Atalaia). O trecho de costa com maiores impactos ambientais e com elevada erosão costeira localiza-se na praia do Farol Velho. Áreas de acresção ou estabilidade estão localizadas nas praias da Corvina e Maçarico e nos extremos da ilha do Atalaia. O grau de periculosidade ao banho foi pouco variável, com escala de segurança de 4 (praia do Maçarico) a 7 (praia do Atalaia) - médio a alto grau de risco. A praia mais freqüentada em Salinópolis é a do Atalaia, e os principais perigos potenciais identificados por banhistas entrevistados nesta praia são o trânsito de veículos, consumo alcoólico e marés altas.<hr/>The coastal zones are areas under great environmental stress, due to excessive exploitation of natural resources, uncontrolled land use and the influence of oceanographic (waves, tides, currents), weather (winds, storms), hydrology (rivers, aquifer, ocean) and anthropogenic (housing, industry, tourism, leisure) agents. The beaches are the environments most dynamic and most appreciated for human use and occupation. In the Northeastern State of Pará (Brazil), Salinópolis stands out as one of the occupation in risk areas subject to erosion. This article analyzes the oceanographic conditions on the Salinópolis beaches (Corvina, Maçarico, Farol Velho and Atalaia), and activities related to leisure and human occupation. Oceanographic data were collected during two periods (April 26th, 27 th and 28 th, 2013 - rainy season - and October 04th, 05th and 06th, 2013 - less rainy season), and July 12th, 2014 - peak tourist season - was made analysis of aspects of the use and occupation of the coast and application interviews/questionnaires with bathers. Observational and instrumental methods of waves and currents measurements were used to oceanographic characterization, and collecting surface sediments to complement the identification of beach morphodynamic states. The classification criteria of ocean coastal of n° 5.300/2004 Decree were used, aiming to categorize the Salinópolis coast in terms of urbanization. Currently, the Salinópolis seafront has different characteristics regarding the use and conservation, ranging from the type of natural coast (Class A) until coastal with consolidated urbanization (Class C). The first occurs at the extremes of the study area and the second in the county seat. Four types of beaches were defined according to maritime exposure and the degree of oceanographic conditions: type 1 (Maçarico), type 2 (Corvina), type 3 (Farol Velho) and type 4 (Atalaia). The section of coast with major environmental impacts and high coastal erosion is located on the Farol Velho beach. Areas of accretion or stability are located on the Corvina and Maçarico and the extremes of the Atalaia island. The degree of danger to the bath was somewhat variable, with a scale of security 4 (Maçarico beach) to 7 (Atalaia beach) - medium to high degree of risk. The most popular beach in Salinópolis is the Atalaia, and the main potential hazards identified by interviews bathers at this beach are vehicle traffic, alcohol consumption and high tides. <![CDATA[<b>Adaptation and perception of extreme storm events at Maricá's Coast, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O presente artigo destaca a importância do estudo da percepção e das adaptações das pessoas e do poder público local frente ao impacto de eventos de ressaca do mar tendo como estudo de caso o litoral de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro. Este município situado a 60 km a leste da Baía de Guanabara é formado por duplos cordões litorâneos e lagunas à retaguarda. A orla estudada apresenta-se de modo geral muito exposta às fortes ondulações do quadrante sul. Três fortes ressacas desde a década 1990 causaram graves impactos em diversos segmentos deste litoral, com destaque para a uma ocorrida em maio de 2001 quando diversas construções foram destruídas, o que gerou elevado prejuízo financeiro. Considerando tais epsódios o presente trabalho buscou analisar as diferentes respostas adaptativas realizadas, assim como a percepção sobre os riscos de danos, causas e soluções relacionadas com esse fenômeno. Estudos prévios demonstraram que o grau do estrago sofrido variou de acordo com as principais características oceanográficas (relacionadas à refração das ondas), geomorfológicas (granulometria, morfodinâmica praial e presença de dunas vegetadas ou não) e urbanas (densidade de ocupação e posição das casas, em relação ao perfil praial). Danos muito intensos, com destruição total de casas, quiosques e da avenida beira-mar ocorreram, principalmente, na praia e Barra de Maricá. Os prejuízos foram estimados em 200.000 reais/km. Para caracterizar as principais adaptações, após a ressaca de maio de 2001, realizaram-se trabalhos de campo, entre 2002 e 2005, quando foram feitas observações in loco, registros fotográficos e localização, por meio de GPS, das medidas realizadas. Para avaliar a percepção, aplicaram-se 65 questionários, à população da orla de Maricá, nos anos de 2003, dois anos após a considerável ressaca, de maio de 2001, e no presente ano, ou seja, 14 depois. Os resultados do atual trabalho demonstraram que as respostas adaptativas foram feitas, exclusivamente pelos moradores, donos de casas de veraneio ou donos de quiosques, sem qualquer apoio do poder público local. Identificaram-se diversos tipos de obras, tais como muros de proteção, enrocamentos e aterros. As entrevistas revelaram que o perigo do mar, a agressividade das ondas e as ressacas são percebidos como o principal problema da praia de Maricá, pela maioria das pessoas entrevistadas. Além disso, tanto em 2003 como em 2015, grande parte dos entrevistados afirmou acreditar que suas propriedades encontrar-se-ão em risco, caso haja novas ocorrências. Quase todos citam as mudanças climáticas, a subida do nível do mar ou outros fatores naturais, como causas do problema. O sentimento de risco ocasionou ainda um processo de desvalorização imobiliária, principalmente nos dois anos seguintes à ressaca do ano de 2001. Tal processo não é mais apontado, atualmente, como um problema por grande parte, dos respondentes, embora alguns alertem que as casas na beira mar não conseguem ser vendidas facilmente. Os dados encontrados, associados à análise espacial da vulnerabilidade física do litoral e dos danos sofridos em eventos de tempestade, são considerados essenciais para o desenvolvimento do planejamento e gestão costeira integrada.<hr/>This paper highlights the importance of researching people's perception of the impacts caused by extreme storms on beaches as well as their adaptation strategies to adjust to such events. The assessment of people's level of consciousness about the problem, as well as their responses to it, helps us understand their ability to adapt and recover from the stress suffered. Therefore, the adaptation degree and the concept of social resilience are considered essential aspects of coastal zone management. The present study focuses on the city of Maricá, which sits east of the Guanabara Bay, 60km (37 miles) from Rio de Janeiro City. The Maricá coastal zone is formed by double beach barriers and barrier-enclosed lagoons. The inner barrier was formed in the second to last Pleistocene marine transgression. The other barrier is associated with the Holocene transgression. The east-west coastline orientation exposes the beaches to high southern waves and strong winds associated with cold fronts. Maricá's urban growth began in the 1970s. Between 1990 and 2000, this city experienced one of the biggest urban growth in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Today, Maricá has 125,532 inhabitants, a 66% growth in comparison to 2000. Weekend getaways tourism is the major incentive for this expansion. These second homes are concentrated on beaches and around the lagoons. Nowadays, despite the demographic pressure, Maricá's coastline is becoming a strategic geographic area because of two events with economic impacts that are scheduled to take place in the near future. The first will be the construction of a port at Jaconé Beach, which included sea defenses structures. Second, a vacation resort is to be installed at the Environment Protected Area located at Barra de Maricá Beach. Three storm events occurred in 1995, 1996, and 2001. These events caused several impacts on Maricá beaches, damaging houses, avenues, and commercial kiosks located at the coast. The strongest storm in decades took place in 2001; the impacts on Maricá's shore were one of the most severe in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results of Maricá coastline's vulnerability assessment found in previous studies showed that the degrees of wave exposure, beach fragility, and damages varied according to geomorphologic, oceanographic, and urban characteristics. These studies also evaluated the resulting financial losses and depressed housing prices. In this context, this paper aims to assess different forms of adaptation, as well as people's perceptions of storms impacts on Maricá coastline. Twenty-five people were interviewed in 2003 and others fourteen in 2015 at the beaches or proximities in Maricá. Twenty eight of which were local residents, owned vacation homes, twelve worked at commercial kiosks, and six were housekeepers. Fieldwork consisted of observation of damages as well as repair or protection strategies. The interviews showed that people consider the dangers of the sea as the major problem in Maricá's beaches. Other common urban coastal problems, such as sea pollution and conflicts over the use of resources were not mentioned at all. Moreover, results showed that adaptation actions were done privately. There were neither prevention measures nor public financial support. People worked to mend and protect their homes in distinct ways. Predominantly, they used coastal hard engineering solutions, like seawalls. These seawalls were built using a variety of materials, such as concrete, culverts, and riprap. Besides seawalls, some residents built an embankment, filling areas with sand. Residents also took responsibility for repairing the ocean drive avenue. They focused their efforts in front of the impacted area advancing over the beach berm. As noted, non-professionals carried out several adaptation strategies and actions without any planning at all. Hence, other solutions, such as moving the urban settlements back or the establishment of a protected area, were not even considered. With no guidance whatsoever, people felt insecure about the efficiency of the structures. The interviews also revealed that people's perceptions of the causes of storm impacts were strongly influenced by the climate change and sea level rising debates. This point of view can be perceived as a problem, because it indicates a disconnection from other causes that might be influencing the current process, such as local geographic characteristics. Moreover, the lack of advocacy is also tied to this perception since the locals tend to see these events as of exclusively natural causes. Therefore, they believe political measures will not solve the issue. Finally, the fieldwork campaigns contributed to identify the spatial positions of the adaptation actions that were made. In addition to this identification, spatial analysis of the physical vulnerability and damages suffered at storms resulted on the following findings. In heavily damaged areas, 50% built seawalls, 12% embankment, 17% only repaired the damages, and 2% carried out mixed actions. In moderately damaged areas, only 26% built seawalls and 27% embankment, while 47% only repaired the damages. Hence, when the damages suffered were heavy, the preferred option was for “hard” engineering solutions. The results indicate specific demands for appropriate coastal management. The local government needs to offer financial support and take responsibility for leading and guiding preventive as well as repairing actions. Moreover, educating locals to increase their knowledge about the problem is essential. Furthermore, in order to obtain a complete and integrated coastal vulnerability assessment, studies about adaptation strategies and people's perception should be incorporated to spatial analysis of the physical vulnerability. This is especially important on coastal cities such as Maricá that has become a strategic place for new economic activities, and where local beaches are going through an intense urban growth. <![CDATA[<b>Integrated analysis of geo environmental units related to fisheries in the south coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Esse estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma análise integrada das unidades geoecológicas relacionadas às atividades pesqueiras desenvolvidas no município de Piúma, localizado no litoral sul do Estado do Espirito Santo. O mesmo foi realizado de janeiro de 2012 a fevereiro de 2015. A identificação das unidades realizou-se com a utilização de imagens cartográficas georreferenciadas, sendo descritas informações sobre as atividades pesqueiras desenvolvidas, as formas de uso e ocupação, os impactos e as propostas de gestão para cada ambiente. Existem nove unidades geoecológicas nas quais são praticadas pelo menos, 13 sistemas de pesca artesanal. Foram identificadas seis unidades de proteção que estão relacionadas com as atividades pesqueiras. Analisaram-se as atividades que ocasionam impactos, ao longo da zona costeira do município em estudo, principalmente as que causam poluição e degradação ambiental. Não foram visualizadas e/ou identificadas ações de conservação nas unidades geoecológicas. Entende-se que estudos integrados podem subsidiar a elaboração de propostas concretas e mais eficientes para uma co-gestão das unidades geoecológicas e dos sistemas de pesca desenvolvidos em uma determinada região, principalmente por considerarem necessidades e particularidades locais.<hr/>This study aims to present an integrated analysis of geoenvironmental units related to fisheries activities in Piúma, southern coast of Espírito Santo state. The units identification were accessed through geo referenced cartographical images, describing information about fisheries activities, uses and occupation, the impacts and the management proposals for each environment. Nine geo environmental units were identified in which at least 13 artisanal fisheries systems are practiced. Pollution and environmental degradation were identified as main impacts throughout the coastal zone. Conservation efforts were not identified for units. We argue that integrated studies may support concrete, efficient proposals for comanagement of geo environmental units and fisheries systems in a regional scale, attempting to local care and singularities. <![CDATA[<b>Main aspects for integrated coastal zone management in Spain</b>: <b>concepts, terminology, context, and delimitation criteria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El contenido de este trabajo analiza algunos aspectos fundamentales para la gestión de las áreas litorales de España. Dichos aspectos guardan, entre ellos, una estrecha relación. En primer lugar, se analizan los conceptos y la terminología utilizada; de gran interés porque, según se trate de las responsabilidades de la Administración General del Estado (AGE) o de las Comunidades Autónomas (CCAA), es necesario utilizar un lenguaje más preciso. A continuación se estudian los principales cambios del contexto en el que se desarrolla la gestión desde varios puntos de vista: el técnico científico (aproximación a la gestión por ecosistemas, desarrollo de disciplinas como la Ordenación Marítima Espacial), el de las iniciativas de política internacional (donde la Comisión Europea juega un importante papel), el de la política nacional (reparto de responsabilidades entre AGE y CC.AA., así como instrumentos disponibles). Por último, interpretando el litoral como un sistema socioecológico, se aportan criterios geográficos y ecológicos, pero también político administrativos, para la delimitación de las áreas litorales en el marco de una gestión más integrada. El modelo resultante, que considera tanto al medio terrestre como marino, proporciona tres zonas bien diferenciadas: Costa, Litoral y Área de Influencia Litoral.<hr/>This paper shows the study and analysis of different interesting aspects for integrated coastal zone management in Spain. These aspects have relationship among them. Firstly, some main concepts are analysed and defined. This is because the Estate and Regional Administrations responsibilities use these concepts with different accuracy. Afterward, different context of coastal management are studied: technical-scientific (ecosystem based management, marine spatial planning), international policies (with the important role of European Commission), national policies (estate and regional responsibilities, and their instruments). Finally, littoral is interpreted as a socio-ecological system based on geographic, ecologic, and administrative criteria. In consequence, the coastal zone delimitation has a more integrated approach. The results show a zonation model where is considered as inland area as marine area, and their relations. Seven zones are differentiated in this model. These zones are classified in three greater units, which are of great interest for integrated coastal zone management: Coast, littoral and influence zone. A) Coast: it is the area, which is to both sides to the coastal line. This area is in contact between sea hydrosphere and lithosphere, and it is the centre of the geographic scheme. When different socio-economic criteria are applied, this area could divide in: 1) shoreland, 2) intertidal area, 3) coastal waters. B) Littoral: it corresponds to the area close to the coast in both sides. It is an important area to integrated coastal zone management. The geographical characteristics of this area allow divide it in two different units: 4) coastal uplands and 5) coastal zone waters. C) Influence zone: This unit could be identified with great areas close to the littoral. This area has important relations with the previous units. This unit is divided in two zones: 6) inland and 7) ocean waters. The zonation obtained from the results is different than the classification from an administrative perspective. This is because; the traditional zonation is from sectorial criteria. But in this research, the classification is about geographical and ecologic criteria. For this reason, coordination and cooperation process are very important to obtain an ecosystem-based management. <![CDATA[<b>Carrying capacity of a beach under the impact of the coastal erosion process (Icaraí Beach)</b>: <b>Subsidies for the coastal management in the state of Ceará, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A praia do Icaraí, localizada no município de Caucaia-CE, é um destino turístico importante e, por conta disto, está enfrentando um intenso processo de exploração de seus recursos ambientais. Este cenário agrava-se devido ao permanente processo de erosão costeira observado em todo o trecho da praia, reduzindo significantemente o espaço destinado ao lazer dos usuários. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa avaliar a capacidade de carga física e social da praia do Icaraí, a fim de fornecer subsídios aos planos de gerenciamento que priorizem a organização do uso do espaço litorâneo. A abordagem metodológica utilizou técnicas de medidas de campo, contagens do número de pessoas e equipamentos de infraestrutura, além de foto-filmagem. Somado a isto, foram aplicados 500 questionários aos utentes da praia em questão. Os resultados evidenciaram uma ocupação desigual destes na faixa costeira da praia, com exibição de uma capacidade de carga ainda em nível tolerável (9,8 m²/usuário). Porém, em alguns trechos da praia, essa capacidade alcançou o nível de saturação (3,5 m²/usuário), atingindo nível crítico de congestionamento, com prejuízo da qualidade da experiência dessas pessoas que declararam preferências por praias de congestionamento reduzido.<hr/>The Icaraí beach, located in the municipality of Caucaia-CE, is an important tourism destination and because of that we are experiencing an intense exploitation of its environmental resources. This scenario is worsened due to the ongoing process of coastal erosion observed in the entire stretch of the Icaraí beach, significantly reducing the space for leisure and recreation activities. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the carrying capacity of the Icaraí beach for recreation, using the methods of physical carrying capacity (the number of individuals who can be physically supported) and social carrying capacity (individual perception regarding congestion levels in the beach), in order to generate useful information for the management plans that prioritize the better planning and management of the coastal area. The methodological approach consisted of data collection, compilation and analysis, using techniques of field measurements (to estimate the area occupied by the users), counting people and equipments and analyzing photo-images (to accurately monitor the flow of beach users). It was interviewed 500 beach users in order to capture individual's perception and behavior regarding the level of congestion and attributes in the Icaraí beach. The results showed an unequal occupation of users in the coastal beach, showing that the carrying capacity is still at tolerable level (9.8 m² user). However, in some portions of the beach, the carrying capacity has reached the saturation level (3.5 m² user), thus reaching critical congestion level and jeopardizing the quality of the user experience. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures aiming at balancing the use and users' occupation along the waterfront, with a better distribution of the infrastructure and equipment in the coastal Icaraí beach. <![CDATA[<b>Sand mining in Calhetona beach (Santiago Island, Cape Verde)</b>: <b>causes, processes and consequences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A extracção clandestina de areia, nas faixas costeiras e nos leitos das ribeiras, tem sido prática de muitos agregados familiares cabo-verdianos. Nas últimas décadas, a praia de Calhetona (Ilha de Santiago) foi um dos muitos locais que sofreram degradação ambiental significativa, devido à realização desta actividade sem quaisquer planos de extracção e de posterior recuperação das áreas degradadas. Este trabalho, através da conjugação de recolha de dados por inquérito, observação directa e pesquisa documental e bibliográfica, teve como objectivos a caracterização da comunidade (que habita no bairro de Ponta Calhetona) que se dedica à extracção de areia na praia de Calhetona, a descrição da dinâmica da actividade extractiva, a avaliação da percepção que a comunidade tem relativamente às consequências da sua actividade e a descrição do impacte ambiental resultante da extracção de areia. Da análise dos inquéritos, efectuados em Fevereiro de 2012, a 25 chefes de agregados familiares que efectuam a extracção de areia na praia de Calhetona, constata-se que estes são maioritariamente mulheres, predominantemente com idade compreendida entre os 40 e os 59 anos, domésticas, com baixa escolaridade, com famílias numerosas e/ou alargadas a seu cargo e dedicando-se à extração de areia à mais de 10 anos. Os inquiridos, face à situação de vulnerabilidade económica, à falta de emprego e à grande procura de areia para a construção civil, vêem nesta actividade uma fonte de rendimento. Contudo, o proveito obtido desta actividade difícil e potencialmente perigosa é reduzido. Quem efectivamente beneficia são os camionistas que compram a areia a quem procede à extracção e a vendem ao consumidor final pelo dobro do preço. Os inquiridos demonstram uma consciência generalizada dos diversos impactes ambientais negativos resultantes da sua actividade, mas alegam que a extracção de areia é uma das poucas alternativas existentes para providenciar o sustento dos seus agregados familiares. Com base na comparação do estado actual da praia de Calhetona com relatos de habitantes locais, relativos às características da mesma no passado, verifica-se que nos últimos 40-50 anos, desde que se iniciou a intensa extracção de areia nesta praia, o seu aspecto físico se degradou claramente. Essa degradação caracteriza-se principalmente pelo recuo da linha de costa, pela quase ausência de areia e pela salinização dos solos localizados nas proximidades da praia, para além dos consequentes impactes negativos sobre a desova das tartarugas e o turismo balnear.<hr/>Sand is a very important raw material for construction industry. Worldwide, it has been widely used in the urban and industrial expansion process, creating jobs, generating capital and thus contributing to the development of society. However, its over-exploitation is also cause of many environmental problems identified all over the world. In Cape Verde archipelago illegal sand mining has been intensively carried out in coastal areas and in stream beds without extraction plans or rehabilitation of degraded areas. In the archipelago sand exploitation was insignificant until the early 1980s, because this material was used only in the lining of outer (stone) walls. Since then, there was a huge increase in construction of infrastructures and public and private buildings due to: the migration of rural populations to the cities; the remittances; the improvement of living conditions; the evolution of the building techniques; and the liberalization of construction materials. The use of sand, gravel and cement (concrete blocks) quickly replaced the use of stone. The use of sand in construction became so widespread that the consequences of its use/exploitation quickly became quite evident in the archipelago. The environmental impact of this mining activity has become so serious that in 1997, the Cape Verdean government was forced to introduce legislation prohibiting sand exploitation in the dunes, beaches and inland waters, with the exception of duly authorized cases. However, despite the existing legislation and inspection, the environmental problems resulting from this activity are still present, since there are many people dedicated to illegal sand mining. The economic vulnerability experienced by the Cape Verdean families has contributed to the ineffectiveness of environmental legislation. A large part of the population lives below the poverty line, so the exploitation of natural resources has been used in an abusive manner to ensure the survival of populations in need. In parallel, the high demand for sand and gravel has favoured illegal exploitation on the beaches and creeks of the archipelago. This illegal activity is traditionaly dominated by women heads of poor households without alternative employment or low ability to generate self-employment. Santiago Island, where resides more than half of the archipelago's population, is by far the largest sand consumer market. This, coupled with the shortage of this mineral resource in the archipelago and the difficult living conditions of the population, puts the mining areas of the islands under enormous pressure. In recent decades, Calhetona Beach (Santiago Island) was one of the many places that suffered significant degradation due to this activity. Thus, having gathered data through the combination of enquiry, direct observation and document analysis, this work intended to: characterize the community (living in Ponta Calhetona neighborhood) dedicated to sand mining in Calhetona Beach; describe the dynamics of the mining activity; assess the perception of the community regarding the consequences of its activity; and describe the environmental impacts resulting from sand mining. The analysis of the survey of 25 heads of households that extract sand from Calhetona Beach shows that these are mostly women, mostly between 40 and 59 years old, unemployed, with low education levels, with dependent numerous and/or extended families and mostly extracting sand for over 10 years. Sand extraction on Calhetona Beach is not dependent on the tide, because, contrary to what happens in other beaches on the island, it does not take place in the water, but is strongly conditioned by the authorithies surveillance. During the night is more difficult to be seen by the inspection agents and easier to escape them. The extraction is commonly made using buckets and padbles and the transportation to the storage location is commonly done in tubs and bags. Because it is a clandestine activity, storage is done in places away from the site of extraction in order to avoid problems with the authorities. On Calhetona Beach, as a result of the authorities pressure, the sand is predominantly sold to the bag. Even in the cases the sand is sold to the carload, the sand is still transported to the place of deliverance in bags to complete the carload. Considering that a Toyota Dyna 280 can carry 4500 to 5000 kg and a bag carries only about 50 kg, it takes 90 to 100 bags to complete a carload. The selling price of a sand bag is about 300$00 to 400$00 (circa 3 to 4€), whereas a carload (Toyota Dyna 280) is about 7,000$00 to 8,000$00 (circa 64 to 73€). The sand is sold mainly to truckers, construction contractors and nearby residents. The truckers (men) are the ones who actually benefit from this activity, buying the sand to the miners and sell it to the end consumer for about 15,000$00 (circa 135€). The delivery of sand to buyers is always carried out at night and early morning to avoid the fines and the seizure of the sand (and the vehicle) by the authorities. The preference for Toyota Dyna 280 is due to the ability of these vehicles to easily move through the alleys of the neighborhood and to escape the authorities because of the speeds that can reach with its turbo engine. The respondents demonstrate a widespread awareness of the various negative economic and environmental impacts resulting from their activity. But they claim that sand mining is one of the few existing alternatives to provide the sustenance of their households. The comparison of the past and the current conditions of Calhetona beach shows that in the last 40- 50 years, since the beginning of intensive sand mining in this beach, there was a clear environmental degradation depicted by the retreat of the shoreline, the near absence of sand or the predominence of gravel, the presence of a permanent saltwater pond parallel to the seashore, the salinization of nearby soils, and the consequent negative impacts on turtle nesting, beach tourism and agriculture. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis de la evolución de las metodologias de gestión integrada de áreas litorales en los periodos comprendidos entre 1990-1999 y 2000-2012</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en En este trabajo se revisan los métodos de Gestión Integrada de Áreas Litorales (GIAL) desarrollados desde los años 90 y sus características. El análisis se centra en los fundamentos metodológicos de la disciplina, englobando los distintos modelos formulados. Estos, a su vez, se clasifican, cronológicamente, en dos grandes grupos: Por un lado, los pertenecientes a los años 90 de la anterior centuria. Y por otro, los propuestos en el transcurso del siglo XXI. Además, se examinan determinados aspectos formales y teóricos de la disciplina: conceptos y términos que marcan la evolución de la GIAL como proceso y los límites adoptados en la definición del ámbito geográfico. El método debe adoptar una estructura clara y lógica que permita avanzar de forma eficaz en el proceso de gestión. La mayor parte de los esquemas metodológicos analizados se estructuran entre cuatro y seis grandes etapas que se suceden de manera secuencial. Estas, a su vez, se subdividen en fases interrelacionadas dentro de un mismo proceso. El estudio arroja los siguientes resultados: en los esquemas metodológicos que se desarrollan en el período comprendido entre 1992 y 1999 no se aprecian diferencias significativas entre las metodologías revisadas. Gran parte se caracteriza por seguir una secuencia de acciones parecidas. Casi todos los manuales y documentos insisten en la importancia de identificar y valorar los problemas y conflictos, porque suelen ser los motivos para emprender una iniciativa de gestión de este tipo. Cuándo se analiza la visión integrada que poseen las distintas metodologías, destaca la idea de una integración horizontal. Según esta, se debe tener en cuenta el mayor número posible de usos y actividades económicas, así como, de recursos naturales afectados, sobre todo en la etapa de diagnóstico. Sin embargo, a partir del año 2000 comienzan a introducirse novedades en los procesos de gestión. Fundamentalmente destacan las metodologías aplicadas a ámbitos concretos o las orientadas a poner, realmente, en práctica un principio específico de la GIAL. Cabe destacar que se le da una mayor importancia al aspecto técnico de la participación. También, adquieren protagonismo las etapas de evaluación y de mejora. Conviene recordar que un ciclo completo de gestión del litoral necesita el transcurso de varios años o décadas para la obtención de logros. Se asume el enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión del litoral, sobre todo, en las etapas que corresponden a la planificación. Este planteamiento de gestión cuyo principio es la conservación de la estructura y el funcionamiento del ecosistema y las escalas temporales apropiadas aparece en las propuestas de la última década.<hr/>In this paper the developed methods of Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) since the 90s, and their characteristics are reviewed. The analysis focuses on the methodological foundations of the discipline, encompassing various models formulated. These models, in turn, are classified chronologically into two groups: First, those from the 90s of the previous century, and secondly, those proposed in the course of the currentcentury. In addition, certain formal and theoretical aspects of the discipline are discussed: Concepts and terms that mark the evolution of ICZM as process, and the limits adopted in the definition of the geographical area. The method must take a clear and logical structure in order to progress effectively in the management process. Most of the analyzed methodological schemes are structured between four and six major stages that occur sequentially. These, in turn, are subdivided into interlinked stages within a single process. The study shows the following results: in the methodological patterns developed in the period from 1992 to 1999 no significant differences between the revised methodology are appreciated, which are mostly characterized by a sequence of similar actions. Almost all hand books and documents emphasize the importance of identifying and assessing the problems and conflicts, because they are usually the reasons for management to undertake an initiative of this kind. When an integrated vision that has different methodologies is discussed, it emphasizes the idea of a horizontal integration. According to this, it should be the maximum number of uses and economic activities, as well as affected natural resources, especially taking the diagnostic phase into account. However, from 2000 innovations in management processes begin to be introduced. Mainly, applied methodologies to specific areas or really aimed at implementing a specific principle of ICZM are highlighted. Notably, it gives greater importance to the technical aspect of participation. Also, the stages of evaluation and improvement gain prominence. It is important to remember that a full cycle of coastal management needs over several years or decades to obtain achievements. The ecosystem approach is assumed in coastal management, especially in the phases under planning. This management approach whose principle is the conservation of the structure and functioning of the ecosystem and appropriate timescales appears on the proposals of the past decade. <![CDATA[<b>Disaster risk management in urban master plans in three municipalities of the coastal area of Pará State, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a temática de gestão de risco de desastres originados em processos naturais nos Planos Diretores Municipais de Belém, Bragança e Salinópolis, na zona costeira do estado do Pará. Estes planos são instrumentos públicos de planejamento e gestão territorial no Brasil desde 2001. Nessas regiões, o desenvolvimento das atividades socioeconômicas, aliadas à exposição aos processos hidrodinâmicos, marítimos e climáticos, tornam-se fatores de ameaças e vulnerabilidades, já estudadas e conhecidas pela população e os governantes. Como procedimento metodológico foi utilizada uma matriz para analisar a temática da gestão de risco de desastres nos planos diretores dos três municípios, por meio de cinco perguntas associadas às temáticas de gestão de riscos naturais, ameaças, vulnerabilidades, formas de resposta e cartografia de riscos. Os resultados indicam que os planos diretores de Belém e Bragança atribuem semelhante importância ao tema, diferentemente da pouca atenção dada pelo Plano Diretor de Salinópolis, mesmo sendo este município local dos problemas de erosão costeira mais impactantes para a população residente, turistas e infraestruturas. As temáticas de gestão de riscos, mesmo não constando de um capítulo particular nos Planos, são apresentadas associadas principalmente às diretrizes ambientais, habitacionais e de saneamento.<hr/>This study aims to analyze the theme of natural disaster risk management in the Municipal Master Plans of Belém, Bragança and Salinópolis municipalities, all located in the coastal zone of Pará State. The Municipal Master Plan has been a public instrument of land planning and management in Brazil since 2001. In these regions, the development of socio-economic activities combined with exposure to hydrodynamic, climatic and marine processes constitute hazards and vulnerabilities factors, already studied and known by the people and governments. As methodological proceedings a matrix to analyze the disaster risk management in the Master Plan of the three municipalities was used through five questions associated to the following thematic: risk management to natural phenomena, hazards, vulnerabilities, response capacity and risks maps. The results indicate that the Master Plan of Belém and Bragança give similar importance to the subject, differently of the Master Plan of Salinópolis, even though this municipality is a place of the most impressive coastal erosion impacts to the resident population, tourists and infrastructure are identified. The theme “disaster risk management” is presented at the Master Plan, even not having a particular chapter, mainly associated with environmental, housing, and sanitation guidelines. <![CDATA[<b>The Women Role of the Marine Artisanal Fishery</b>: <b>A Study of a Fishery Community of the City of Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-88722016000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As pescas, particularmente a artesanal, têm sido alvo de interesse crescente pela comunidade científica. Mais recentemente, o interesse em torno da compreensão do papel dos pescadores, suas percepções e racionalidades na relação com os recursos naturais e serviços de ecossistema tem vindo a ser integrado nas agendas científicas. Neste contexto, o lugar e o papel das mulheres na pesca e na preservação ambiental são relativamente invisíveis. Este trabalho procura contribuir para essa visibilidade no âmbito da atividade pesqueira artesanal marinha, tomando como campo de análise uma comunidade de Rio das Ostras (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil). Neste estudo procuramos conhecer a comunidade de pescadores artesanais de Rio de Ostras, caracterizar a divisão do trabalho local, mas, sobretudo compreender as percepções que homens e mulheres desta comunidade têm sobre a relação entre essas e a pesca artesanal e como este vínculo é reconhecido e valorizado. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando métodos de abordagem qualitativa, cujo referencial metodológico está pautado na Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados e nos princípios do Diagnóstico Rápido Participativo. Coletaram-se os dados primários por meio da observação, entrevistas e ferramentas participativas, em amostragens tipo bola de neve e teórica. Os dados foram codificados, categorizados e triangulados. A análise nos permite concluir que, o papel delas na comunidade pesqueira de Rio das Ostras, abrange a efetuação de múltiplas atividades, motivadas pela divisão sexual do trabalho. Apesar da extensa jornada diária dedicada aos trabalhos produtivo e reprodutivo, tal atuação é reconhecida como “ajuda”, ainda que contribua significativamente para o orçamento e gestão familiar. Tal perspectiva enfraquece a visibilidade das mulheres perante a comunidade local, bem como a valorização dos seus papeis sociais quer ao nível da preservação ambiental e sustentabilidade, quer na mudança social e cultural local.<hr/>The Women Role of the Marine Artisanal Fishery: A Study of a Fishery Community of the City of Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil Fisheries, particularly artisanal, have been subject of growing interest in the scientific community. More recently, the interest about the role of fishermen, their perceptions and rationalities in relation to natural resources and ecosystem services have been integrated into the scientific agendas. In this context, the place and the role of women in fisheries and environmental preservation are relatively invisible. This study aims to contribute to this visibility at the level of marine artisanal fisheries in the small community of Rio das Ostras (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). ). This study intends to know the artisanal fishermen community of Rio das Ostras, characterizing the division of local labour as much as to understand the perceptions that men and women of this community have on the relationship between women and small-scale fishing and how this context is valued and recognized. The research was conducted using qualitative methods, based on the Grounded Theory and the principles of Participatory Rapid Assessment. Primary data were collected through observation, interviews and participatory tools, and the sample was built using snowball and theoretical technics. The data were coded, categorized and triangulated. The analysis allows us to conclude that the role of women in the fishing community of Rio das Ostras, covers the implementation of multiple activities, based on sexual division of labor. Despite the extensive daily journey devoted to productive and reproductive work, such actions are recognized merely as a "help", although it significantly contributes to the family budget. This perspective undermines the visibility of women before the local community as well as the appreciation of their social role, as much as in the environmental preservation and sustainability as well as in the social and cultural changes in the local community.