Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Medievalista]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=1646-740X20200002&lang=en vol. num. 28 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>Medievalista - continuity and change</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>In memoriam Francisc Rapp (b. 1926) and Michel Parisse (b.1936)</b>: <b>two distinguished medievalists victims of COVID 19</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>“Ecclesiastics in diplomatic affairs, the administration of the Realm and the Legitimation of Medieval Monarchies: Portugal, León and Castile, France and England“</b>: <b>a foreword</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The clergy and the Cortes of 1361</b>: <b>networks and protagonists in the time of Pedro I of Portugal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Em 1361 D. Pedro reunia Cortes em Elvas, lugar excêntrico no quadro do que até então tinham sido os lugares escolhidos para essas reuniões. Das actas dessas Cortes ressalta um conjunto de capítulos, apresentado pelo clero português, e coligidos, mais tarde, nas Ordenações Afonsinas. Tidos como um reflexo da permanência de problemas anteriores, o conteúdo destes capítulos bem como o contexto da sua apresentação merecem uma análise mais detalhada, tendo em linha de conta o quadro mais amplo das relações clero - realeza em meados do século XIV em Portugal. O questionário subjacente a esta análise tem assim em linha de conta, por um lado, as implicações e condicionalismos do recurso à apresentação de queixas por parte do clero ao rei ou ao papa e, por outro, a importância que a crise de 1355-56, bem como as sequelas da política afonsina, podem ter tido nestes primeiros anos do reinado de D. Pedro.<hr/>In 1361 D. Pedro gathered Cortes in Elvas, a very uncommon place if we take in account the places chosen for these meetings. One of things most remarkable of this Cortes was the presentation of a list of grievances by the Portuguese clergy to the king. List that was, several decades after, collected in the Ordenações Afonsinas. Normally seen as a reflection of the persistence of previous problems between clergy and kings, the content and context of these grievances deserve a more detailed analysis. In this article, we intend to draw attention to the implications of the frequent presentation of grievances by the clergy to the king or pope and also to the importance of the crisis of 1355 -1356 in the first years of governance of D. Pedro. <![CDATA[<b>From João das Regras to the Royal Council</b>: <b>men of law in the affirmation of the new dinasty</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O organograma da oficialidade burocrática após 1383-1385 reproduz, no essencial, o que se esboçara entre as décadas de 30 e de 70 de Trezentos. Quando se passa aos oficiais concretos o panorama difere, uma vez que se verifica uma acentuada renovação dos burocratas, com destaque para clérigos e homens de Leis. O século XV vai afirmar-se, logo em tempos joaninos, como um tempo de desempenhos da oficialidade mais longos e cada vez mais qualificáveis como carreiras. Quanto ao Conselho Régio, a instância política dos órgãos do poder, com actividade mais ou menos intensa, o monarca reserva-se o direito de o organizar e de designar os seus titulares. A nova dinastia irá ainda reforçar a imagem jurídica da realeza pela vertente do rei-legislador, não tanto agora pela criação como pela recolha e sistematização do Direito vigente.<hr/>The organization of bureaucratic officiality after 1383-1385 essentially reproduces what had been outlined between the 30s and the 70s of the 14th. Century. When it comes to specific officers, the scene differs, since there is an obvious renewal of bureaucrats, mainly clerics and lawmen. The 15th. Century will be, already in the days of King John I, a time when official status is held longer, being increasingly categorized as careers. As for the Royal Council, the king reserves to himself the right to organize the political level of the governmental organs (of more or less intense activity), and to appoint their members. The new dynasty will also reinforce the legal image of royalty, through idea of King-legislator, not so much as the result of creation, as of collection and systematization of the law in force. <![CDATA[<b>The role of ecclesiastics in the construction of “international” legitimacy of the Portuguese Avis dynasty (1383-1433)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en La llegada al trono de la dinastía portuguesa Avis encarnada en la persona de Juan I de Portugal supuso la necesidad de llevar a cabo iniciativas diplomáticas destinadas a garantizar la supervivencia de la dinastía, la cual entrañaba alcanzar la legitimación de la nueva situación política. Eclesiásticos ligados a la administración del reino, entre los que destacan figuras como João Afonso Esteves de Azambuja o Rui Lorenço, pusieron sus conocimientos, su experiencia y su prestigio al servicio de las exigencias del programa diplomático de la nueva dinastía. Unos recursos humanos escasos y apreciados que no pudieron abarcar todos los campos de actuación de la política exterior joanina, y se especializaron en tres cuestiones: las negociaciones con el pontificado, la construcción de la paz con los castellanos y la participación en la solución del Gran Cisma de Occidente mediante los concilios ecuménicos. Negociadores duros y persistentes que aprovecharon estos encargos para progresar en su carrera eclesiástica mediante la consecución de beneficios, unas veces ofrecidos por el pontífice para ganarse su favor, y otras veces por su monarca como reconocimiento tras alcanzar exitosamente los objetivos marcados.<hr/>The accesion to the throne of the Portuguese Avis dynasty embodied in the person of John I of Portugal implied the need to carry out diplomatic initiatives aimed at guaranteeing the survival, which involved achieving the legitimation of the new political situation. Distinguised ecclesiastics linked to the administration of the kingdom, among which was João Afonso Esteves de Azambuja or Rui Lorenço, put their knowledge, experience and prestige at the service of the demands of the diplomatic program of the new dynasty. Scarce and appreciated human resources that they could not cover all the fields of action of the John I of Portugal’s foreign policy, reason why they specialized in three questions: the negotiations with the pontificate to legitimize John I of Portugal, the construction of peace with the Kingdom of Castile, and the participacion in the ecumenical councils that led to a solution for the Great Occidental Schism. Hard and persistent negotiators who took advantage of these diplomatic assignments to advance in their ecclesiastical career by achieving ecclesiastical benefits, sometimes offered by a Pope, which tried to win their favor, and other times offered by their monarch as recognition after successfully achieving the diplomatic objectives. <![CDATA[<b>Clergy at the service of the Crown</b>: <b>Leon and Castile administration and kings’ domestic sphere (12th-15th centuries)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El presente artículo muestra los resultados de la investigación que se llevó a cabo en el Proyecto DEGRUPE (2013-2015) sobre los clérigos que participaron en la conformación de las monarquías bajomedievales peninsulares, concretamente en lo referido a los reinos de León y Castilla, tanto por separado desde 1157, como en conjunto desde 1230. El estudio analiza los diferentes cargos ocupados por clérigos dentro de la administración regia, así como los cargos dentro de la esfera doméstica de las casas reales.<hr/>This article aims to show the research results of the DEGRUPE Project (2013-2015), focused on the clergy involved in the consolidation of Late Medieval Iberian monarchies. In this case, the data are related to the kingdoms of Leon and Castile, both separately (1157 to 1230) and united (from 1230 onwords). The study analyses all the positions held by clerics within the royal administration, as well as within the royal house, as royal private service. <![CDATA[<b>Diplomacy and the building of monarchy</b>: <b>the participation of ecclesiastics in Castile</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A lo largo del presente trabajo se analiza el desarrollo de la diplomacia regia y la contribución de algunos eclesiásticos, a lo largo de los siglos XIV y XV, en Castilla. A través del análisis de la aparición y desarrollo de algunos oficios de la corte con especial relevancia para la diplomacia, así como del análisis de algunos casos un tanto especiales de eclesiásticos al servicio regio en embajadas, se ofrecen algunas respuestas y otras preguntas para la futura investigación del funcionamiento y organización de la diplomacia castellana.<hr/>In this paper we analyse the development of the royal diplomacy and the contributions of some ecclesiastics among the fourteenth and fifteenth century in Castile. Through the analysis of the birth and grown of the special diplomatic offices in the court and in the royal burocracy, and through some special cases of study of the role played by churchmen in the royal service, here offer some initial results and answers to some questions, and many questions for the future about the operation and development of the castillian diplomacy. <![CDATA[<b>The Bishops of Provence and royal diplomacy under Charles II, 1285-1309</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en L’épiscopat et les prévôts des cathédrales ont joué sous Charles II un rôle politique accru, s’intégrant aux rouages du gouvernement sous une forme plus aboutie au regard du règne de Charles d’Anjou. La diplomatie en constitue l’un des aspects, quand le magistère de la parole, les compétences en matière de droit canonique et les réseaux personnels ou bénéficiaux, sont mis à profit pour servir les ambitions méditerranéennes de la monarchie.<hr/>In comparison to the reign of Charles of Anjou, the bishops and provosts of the cathedrals of Provence gained an increasing political importance under Charles II inasmuch as they were able to smoothly integrate themselves into the government apparatus. One aspect of this integration is diplomacy, which through the magisterium of speech, skills in canon law and personal or beneficial networks serves the Mediterranean ambitions of the Monarchy. <![CDATA[<b>Clerk, Chancellor, Castaway (1374-1419): Faction and Politics in the International Career of a Lancastrian Servant</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A former member of the parish clergy and an occasional servant of Richard II, the scholar Adam Davenport became one of the main household officials of the Portuguese queen, Philippa of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and the sister of Richard II’s usurper, Henry IV. On stepping down from office and Portugal’s royal court, he returned to his native country only to meet with Henry IV’s continued disapproval, which eventually led him to a terminus vitae in relative modesty and obscurity. This paper traces Adam Davenport’s professional trajectory of 45 years, from 1374 to 1419, across contrastive political regimes in two different countries, first as a local cleric, then as a senior administrator, and eventually as an unwaged outsider. As the social and financial ties between Davenport and his consecutive benefactors were kept or lost, according to the distribution of grace and the varying configuration of affinities, so Davenport’s fortune changed. The details of this three-tiered career put into focus the critical role played by displacement (geographical as much as societal) and the secular patronage on which men like Davenport - a middling member of an expanding clerical class - came to depend for survival.<hr/>Antigo membro da clerezia paroquial e servidor de Ricardo II de Inglaterra, Adam Davenport tornar-se-ia, em Portugal, num dos principais oficiais régios da rainha D. Filipa de Lencastre, filha de João de Gante (John of Gaunt) e irmã do futuro Henrique IV, alçado por rei após a deposição de Ricardo II. Desejando regressar ao país que o viu nascer, e como tal abandonando a corte portuguesa, Davenport irá enfrentar a resistência de Henrique IV, o que acabará por levá-lo a um terminus vitae em condições de relativa modéstia. Este artigo delineia, pois, a carreira de Adam Davenport, ao longo de 45 anos (entre 1374 e 1419), através de dois países e de regimes políticos distintos, primeiro como beneficiado ao nível paroquial, depois como administrador régio e, por fim, como forasteiro no seu país de origem. À medida que as associações pessoais e laborais de Davenport com os seus sucessivos patronos se mantêm ou vão sendo perdidas, vê-se condicionado o seu acesso a redes de patronato e distribuição de mercês. Ao pôr em evidência o percurso tripartido de Adam Davenport, o artigo pretende chamar a atenção para a acção do desenraizamento (geográfico e socioeconómico) e dos poderes seculares sobre um grupo social em afirmação. <![CDATA[<b>The Infuriated Holiness</b>: <b>Medieval Monks and Bishops in a Struggle for Public Emotions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A Europa do século XI foi marcada por conflitos eclesiásticos. Embora as tensões entre laicos e clérigos atraiam, há mais de um século, a maior parcela da atenção dos historiadores - especialmente as chamadas lutas entre o sacerdócio e o império -, as disputas travadas entre segmentos da própria Igreja se multiplicaram e intensificaram, logrando grande repercussão documental. Entre os casos mais frequentes da escalada de embates na “Era da Reforma Gregoriana”, estavam os confrontos entre monges e bispos, cuja eclosão repercutia em numerosas direções: sobre a dominação aristocrática, as cadeias de controle patrimonial, os fundamentos da eclesiologia, as mobilizações urbanas, os consensos jurídicos. As páginas a seguir consistem em um estudo sobre um caso assim: por volta de 1034, uma desavença opôs a alta cúpula do bispado florentino a uma parcela do monacato local preenchendo décadas com relatos de milagres aterradores, clamores populares, desafios abertos ao papado e disputas sangrentas pela autoridade jurídica. A análise histórica desse conflito articula crônicas, cartulários, epistolários e diplomática, orientada pela hipótese de que o campo de atuação dos agentes teria sido afetado por um fator singular: o desvelamento de certas emoções deslocava a geografia das prerrogativas públicas.<hr/>In the 11th century, Europe was marked by ecclesiastical conflicts. Although tensions between lay and clergy attracted, for more than a century, the largest share of the historians' attention - especially the so-called struggles between the priesthood and the empire -, the struggles between segments of the Church itself multiplied and intensified, achieving great documentary repercussion. Among the most frequent cases of disputes during the "Gregorian Reformation Era" were clashes between monks and bishops, whose outbreak had repercussions in numerous directions: on aristocratic domination, patrimonial control networks, foundations of ecclesiology, urban mobilizations, legal consensus. The following pages consist of a study of such a case: around 1034 a quarrel opposed the high echelon of the Florentine bishopric to a portion of local monasticism filling in decades with reports of terrifying miracles, popular clamours, open challenges to the papacy and bloody disputes by legal authority. The historical analysis of this conflict articulates chronicles, cartulars, epistolary and diplomatic, guided by the hypothesis that the field of action of agents would have been affected by a singular factor: the unveiling of certain emotions shifted the geography of public prerogatives. <![CDATA[<b>Direct realism in Tomás de Aquino's theory of intellectual cognition</b>: <b>analysis and objections</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este texto tem como objetivo uma apresentação introdutória da hipótese interpretativa do realismo direto, no que diz respeito à relação entre o conceito e o objeto, na gnosiologia tomasiana. O realismo direto levanta a hipótese de que há uma relação de identidade formal entre a species intelligibilis/conceito e a coisa externa. Devido a esta tese da identidade formal, devemos negar que tais entidades sejam intermediárias entre o intelecto e a coisa. Portanto, a negação de uma entidade mental intermediária excluiria uma interpretação representacionalista. Pretendemos, após analisar as principais teses do realismo direto, propor algumas objeções a estas. Teremos como foco de objeção a tese central da identidade formal e o fundamento desta, a saber, a forma comum.<hr/>This text aims at an introductory presentation of the interpretative hypothesis of direct realism, with regard to the relationship between the concept and the object, in Thomasian gnosiology. Direct realism raises the hypothesis that there is a formal identity relationship between the species intelligibilis / concept and the external thing. Due to this thesis of formal identity, we must deny that such entities are intermediaries between the intellect and the thing. Therefore, the denial of an intermediate mental entity would exclude a representationalist interpretation. After analyzing the main theses of direct realism, we intend to propose some objections to these. We will object to the central thesis of formal identity and its basis, namely, the common form. <![CDATA[<b>The Evolution of Different Fonts in the Coptic Churches Throughout the Centuries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[Recensão / Book review: <b>ANDRADE, Amélia Aguiar; TENTE, Catarina; SILVA, Gonçalo Melo; PRATA, Sara (eds.) <i>- Inclusão e Exclusão na Europa Urbana Medieval. Inclusion and Exclusion in Medieval Urban Europe. </i>Lisboa: Instituto de Estudos Medievais-Câmara Municipal de Castelo de Vide, 2019 (552 pp.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Recensão / Book review</b>: <b>CLÉMENT, François (dir.) - <i>Épidémies, épizooties. Des représentations anciennes aux approches actuelles</i>. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2017 (264 pp.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Recensão / Book review</b>: <b>MUÑOZ GÓMEZ, Víctor - <i>El poder señorial de Fernando “el de Antequera” y los de su Casa. Señorío, redes clientelares y sociedad feudal en Castilla durante la baja Edad Media</i>. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2018 (533 pp.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Recensão / Book review</b>: <b>LADERO QUESADA, Miguel Ángel - <i>Ciudades de la España Medieval. Introducción a su estúdio</i>. </b><b>Madrid: Dykinson, 2019 (264 pp.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Recensão / Book review</b>: <b>DONNELLY, Andrew - Cooking pots, and cultural transformation in Imperial and Late Antique Italy. PhD thesis. Loyola University Chicago, 2016 (298 pp.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Arquivos e práticas arquivísticas de famílias de elite (Portugal, séculos XV-XVII)</b>: <b>Tese de Doutoramento em História/Arquivística Histórica, apresentada à FCSH-UNL em Novembro de 2019. Orientação da Professora Doutora Maria de Lurdes Rosa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Paisajes monásticos. El monacato altomedieval en los condados catalanes (siglos IX-X)</b>: <b>Tese de Doutoramento em História apresentada à Universidade de Barcelona (Espanha), Julho de 2019. Orientação das Professoras Blanca Garí e Maria Soler-Sala</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>The Discourses of Holy War and the Memory of the First Battles of Islam. </b><b><i>Al-Andalus, 10<sup>th </sup>- 13<sup>th</sup> centuries</i></b>: <b>Tese de doutoramento em História Medieval, apresentada à Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2020. Orientação dos Professores Carlos de Ayala Martínez e Mercedes García-Arenal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Materialities and Devotions (5th-15th centuries)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>New research trails on medieval galician-portuguese songbooks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Alvaro Pirez d’Évora. A portuguese painter in Italy on the eve of the Renaissance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes. <![CDATA[<b>Earth, Stones and Sherds of Gharb al-Andalus. International Congress</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-740X2020000200025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although Christianity was widespread in Egypt since the 1st century, Christians were only allowed to exercise their worship freely after the Milan decree. From this date, Christianity was recognized and the churches were built. The architecture adopted in the foundation of the churches involved the construction of some basins for different uses such as the baptismal basin which changed shape and location over the centuries. The churches also contained "El Maghtas" used for holy water during the feast of the Epiphany. The basin called "El Laqân" of circular shape not deep was carved on the floor of the old churches. Besides these, other pools were used for washing and for exercising Extreme Unction. Thus, we will explain in this research the difference between the basins, their evolution and their importance while referring to examples from various ancient Coptic churches.<hr/>Bien que le Christianisme fût répandu en Egypte dès le premier siècle, les Chrétiens n'eurent le droit d'exercer librement leur culte qu'après le décret de Milan. A partir de cette date, le Christianisme fut reconnu et les églises furent édifiées. L'architecture adoptée dans la fondation des églises impliquait la construction de quelques bassins pour différents usages comme le bassin baptismal qui changea de forme et d'emplacement au cours des siècles. Les églises contenaient également "El Maghtas" utilisé pour l'eau bénite durant la fête de l'Epiphanie. Le bassin appelé "El Laqân" de forme circulaire pas profond était sculpté sur le sol des anciennes églises. A part ceux-ci, on utilisait d'autres bassins pour se laver et pour exercer l'Extrême-Onction. Ainsi, nous expliquerons dans la recherche la différence entre les bassins, leur évolution et leur importance tout en se référant sur des exemples figurant dans différentes anciennes églises coptes.