Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Observatorio (OBS*)]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=1646-595420140004&lang=pt vol. 8 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>Critical but co-operative</b>: <b>Netizens evaluating journalists in social media</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article looks into the relationship between professional journalists and active Web users in the sphere of social media1. Our exploration into journalists’ social media participation is approached through two “clashes of cultures” between the online context and the world of journalism, namely anonymity and transparency. The research, which is based on interviews with journalists and experts and a survey to the web users, permits the conclusion that the relation between journalists and public is fraught with suspicion and conflict. Newsrooms should be more open as regards journalistic practices, but frequently they are not accessible to the public. <![CDATA[<b>NGDOs and social web Tools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objeto de este artículo es doble. En primer lugar, se exponen las oportunidades que el nuevo paradigma comunicativo, generado por la irrupción de la web social, ofrece a las Organizaciones no Gubernamentales de Desarrollo para gestionar la relación que mantienen con sus grupos de interés cuando pretenden informar, sensibilizar, educar para el desarrollo, captar recursos o presionar. Tras ello, se describe, analizando diversas variables, cuál es el estado actual de implantación de las herramientas de la web social en este sector en España. Las conclusiones obtenidas en esta investigación provienen de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo de las web y de las herramientas de la web social de las 95 ONGD que componen la Coordinadora de ONGD de España. Los datos obtenidos muestran que se ha producido un aumento en la activación de estas herramientas por parte de las ONGD, cuantifican la posibilidad de interactuar que les ofrecen con sus grupos de interés y apunta futuras líneas de investigación en este campo.<hr/>The aim of this article is twofold. First, to highlight the new communication paradigm and opportunities generated for NGDOs by the emergence of social Web. Secondly, the paper will offer a description of the current status of the implementation of the social web tools in this field in Spain. The conclusions come from a quantitative content analysis of webs and social Web tools of the 95 NGDOs that make up the NGD Coordinator in Spain. These results are an open opportunity for a future research in the field of development communication. <![CDATA[<b>Facts and feelings in comment threads</b>: <b>An exploration of grass-roots writers’ norms for online political discussion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article surveys a “real world” ideal of online discussions using a bottom-up perspective to study current norms of independent debaters online. It contributes to the field with a qualitative and grounded analysis of solo grass-roots writers’ own debate norms - their ideas of the good and bad debates. Thus, the article does not ask, “Is their discussion democratic, and does it contribute to revitalizing democracy?” Instead, it asks, “What makes for a good online debate as described from a grass-roots perspective?” The results indicate that objectivity, respect and politeness are main themes in their descriptions, while the theme of emotion constitutes a contrast from the others. Concurrently, there are studies that discuss a more open understanding of online political participation that is moving away from strict Habermasian evaluations of online discussions. This can be considered a positive development for marginalized voices that are not writing in a purely rational argumentative manner. However, this article argues that the, in many aspects, counter-hegemonic writers in this study who could benefit from a broader approach, nevertheless, still value many traditional ideals. <![CDATA[<b>O vínculo do jornalista com o ambiente expresso em um jornal local</b>: <b>uma análise de discurso envolvendo o Pantanal brasileiro</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A comparação entre a cobertura jornalística sobre o Pantanal brasileiro praticada por um jornal local e por um veículo da grande imprensa revela diferenças e semelhanças que podem contribuir para o entendimento da questão local. A metodologia da análise de discurso auxilia na descoberta dos contextos e das relações sociais que envolvem o jornalismo de proximidade. Conclui-se que, nas matérias avaliadas, a cobertura da mídia próxima é mais comprometida com a questão local e que o vínculo do jornalista com o ambiente não deve ser ignorado.<hr/>A comparison of newspaper coverage of the Brazilian Pantanal by a local newspaper and a main media vehicle reveals similarities and differences that may contribute to the understanding of a local issue. The methodology of discourse analysis helps in the discovery of contexts and social relationships involving proximity journalism. Our conclusion from the news stories that were researched is that coverage by local media is more committed to indigenous issues and that the journalist's ties with the environment should not be ignored. <![CDATA[<b><i>Corporate Flash mob</i></b>: <b>Study of the Best Spanish Reputable Companies flash mob videos</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El flash mob corporativo es un tipo de performance que puede utilizarse para transmitir una imagen positiva de una empresa o institución. Lo habitual es que se grabe en video y se comparta en los social media de la entidad. De esta manera, su impacto se ve multiplicado en su paso de lo offline a lo online. Pero, ¿cuál es su alcance? ¿qué están haciendo las empresas españolas a este respecto? El artículo estudia la presencia y la tipología de los flash mob videos de las empresas españolas mejor reputadas (según Merco 2013). Concluye que la herramienta resulta disruptiva y novedosa. Puede considerarse un ejemplo de una nueva filosofía en la aplicación de una Comunicación Corporativa más creativa.<hr/>Corporate flash mob is a kind of performance that can be used to transmit positive image of a company or institution. It usually is recorded and shared in organizational social media. In this way (from the offline to the online) its impact is multiplied. But, which is its scope? What are Spanish companies doing about it? This article studies best Spanish Reputable companies (according to Merco 2013) flash mob videos presence and implementation. It concludes that the tool results disruptive and new and it favours the generation of positive emotions. It can be considered an example of a new philosophy in the application of a Corporate Communication more creative. <![CDATA[<b>Good practices in audiovisual diversity</b>: <b>Hype or hope?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Research conducted on the audiovisual industry within the context of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (UNESCO, 2005) lends weight to the idea that exclusively applying market logic to the field of culture poses a threat to its diversity. It is therefore necessary to identify and foster practices to implement from the public sphere. The question, then, is how to define such practices. The Convention uses the term ‘best practice’ within a scenario in which this concept, like ‘good practice’, has been extensively but only vaguely defined. Taking this as a starting point, the aim of this article is to offer a report based on a critical, bibliographical and archival review of how these notions have evolved. To this end, we re-examine their origin and evolution, contrasting them with other related terms such as ‘contextual practice’ or ‘meaningful experience’. We then analyse how the notions of good/best practice are used in the UNESCO Convention and in a series of studies focusing on communication and culture. In short, these terms are deconstructed to suggest a new critical definition that encompasses the characteristics of what might constitute a good practice in the promotion and/or protection of audiovisual diversity. <![CDATA[<b>Do estádio para a mão</b>: <b>A narração dos jogos da fase final da Liga dos Campeões através das apps para o iPhone</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A emergência dos smartphones e dos tablets, como veículos no processo informativo, é um dos tópicos mais discutidos no contexto do jornalismo digital (Aguado & Martinez, 2008; Westlund, 2013; Batsell, 2012). A ubiquidade, a mobilidade, a interatividade e o perfil multimédia destes dois aparelhos são características que os tornam importantes no contexto da sociedade da informação. Para além disso, há que ter em conta as novas oportunidades que se levantam para um consumo mais ativo por parte das audiências. De que forma é que estas oportunidades estão a ser aproveitadas pelos diferentes media? É esta pergunta que orienta a nossa investigação. Através da narração de quatro partidas da fase final da Liga dos Campeões de 2013 nas aplicação para o iPhone criadas pelo Maisfutebol, Sky Sports e Marca intentaremos responder a esta pertinente pergunta. A evolução que estes aparelhos sofreram a longo dos últimos anos tornam possível a sua utilização no campo da informação. Esta oportunidade foi aproveitada pelos mais diversos tipos de media que lançaram aplicações especificamente desenvolvidas para estas plataformas, que se vão assumindo como um terceiro ecrã informativo, depois da TV e do computador (Orgad, 2009). Neste contexto, surgem novas rotinas produtivas e um novo modo de nos relacionarmos com os conteúdos informativos. As barreiras temporais e os limites espaciais foram quebrados, podendo a informação estar disponível em qualquer lugar, num tempo fixado por nós e em diferentes formatos. O trabalho apresentado está inserido no projeto de doutoramento: “Informação 4G: Os desafios que as tecnologias móveis colocam no campo da informação”(FCT: SFRH/BD/87763/2012), que tem como uma das suas premissas acompanhar a adaptação dos diferentes media à emergência dos dispositivos de comunicação móvel na sociedade da informação.<hr/>The emergence of smartphones and tablets as vehicles in the reporting process is one of the topics most often discussed in the context of digitalization in the journalism field (Aguado & Martinez, 2008; Westlund, 2012; Bastell, 2012). The ubiquity, mobility, interactivity and multimedia are all characteristics that make these two new devices assuming an increasingly important role in the information society. In addition, it must take into account the new opportunities that arise for a more active consumption by audiences. How are the different media exploiting these new opportunities? This is the question that guides our research. Through the narration of four games of the Champions League 2013 finals’, on the application created for iPhone by Maisfutebol, Sky Sports and Marca, we will try to answer this pertinent question. The evolution that these devices have suffered over the past few years makes it possible to use them in the information field. Various media exploited this opportunity and have launched applications specifically developed for these platforms, used as a third informative screen after TV and computer (Orgad, 2009). This raises new production routines and a new way of relating with news content. The temporal and spatial boundaries barriers were broken, information may be available anywhere, at a time fixed by us and in different formats. The present work is part of the PhD project: “Information 4G: The challenges that mobile technologies put in the information field” (FCT: SFRH/BD/87763/2012), which has as one of its assumptions to accompany the adaptation of the different media to the emergence of mobile communication devices in the information society. <![CDATA[<b>Framing Nuclear Crisis</b>: <b>British and Spanish Press on the Korean Peninsula Conflict</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El artículo se centra en el conflicto de Corea del Norte visto desde las páginas de la prensa británica y española en el periodo 21 de marzo -5 de abril de 2013. Analizamos los siguientes periódicos: El Mundo, El País, The Guardian y The Daily Telegraph. En la prensa británica se observa una clara apropiación del conflicto descrito desde la amenaza nuclear lo que se traduce finalmente en sobredimensionamiento del aspecto militar. La prensa española se centra en la tensión política creada a nivel global a lo cual, añade el problema de los ciberataques y la manipulación informativa.<hr/>This article focuses on the North Korean conflict covered by the Spanishand the British press in the period between March 21 and April 5, 2013. The following newspapers are analyzed: El Mundo, El Pais, The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph. A case of appropriation of the conflict is observed in the British press where the same is described through the nuclear threat perspective which finally results in oversizing the military dimension. The Spanish press focuses on the political tension on global level along with the problem of the cyber-attacks and the media manipulation. <![CDATA[<b>Food advertising on children's television in Spain</b>: <b>healthy lifestyles’ promotion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar la publicidad de alimentos emitida por los canales temáticos infantiles de carácter privado y con mayor audiencia en España (Neox y Boing). Para ello se ha realizado un análisis de contenido de las pausas comerciales que estas cadenas realizan durante las franjas de protección reforzada de la infancia que la normativa de este país determina. El estudio evidencia cómo el creciente problema de obesidad entre la población infantil ha supuesto la implicación de las marcas de la industria alimentaria. Se promocionan hábitos de vida saludable mediante sobreimpresiones que llegan a los niños a través de la pequeña pantalla. Sin embargo, el mensaje de seguir una alimentación variada y practicar ejercicio con regularidad queda relegado ante la fuerte estrategia comercial que el sector de productos de consumo realiza. Se emplea un argumento de venta basado en un incentivo que el consumidor obtiene con la compra del producto frente a las cualidades nutritivas que este ofrece.<hr/>The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promoted through messages printed in the ads that children see on television. Nevertheless, a varied diet and regular exercise is pushed into the background as a result of the strong commercial strategy of this sector’s brands. The pitch is the bonus that the consumer receives with the product instead of the nutritive characteristics. <![CDATA[<b>Environmental information at public space of print press</b>: <b>A longitudinal study about its referring</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Por la importancia que tiene la información con referente ambiental, este estudio se propone analizar su trayectoria en dos períodos: años 2012 y 2013, con el objetivo de analizar el espacio público de la información ambiental. El análisis de la información de los medios de comunicación sobre temas ambientales busca incidir en el pensamiento social y la reflexión crítica de acuerdo a la Agenda 21 (ONU,1992). El soporte teórico describe el ámbito de la información emitida por los medios en dos -posibles- escenarios del espacio público: 1) como custodia ciudadana; 2) como soporte institucional del poder político.El contexto desarrolla que los más de 80 años de gobierno del Partido Revolucionario Institucional en Veracruz, ha dejado su impronta absolutista en el quehacer informativo respecto a la política, y se pregunta qué sucede en el espacio público de la información ambiental. Los resultados comparan el comportamiento de la prensa regional sobre temas ambientales en los años 2012 y el 2103. La discusión final reflexiona sobre el importante papel que juega el periodismo en la construcción de la realidad, y en consecuencia del periodista como el primer sujeto que se involucre en los cambios profundos de estilo de vida, de organización social, de formas de pensamiento, conocimiento y principios éticos.<hr/>Given the importance of information relevant to the environment, this study aims to analyze two periods of public use of enviromental information: 2012 and 2013. The first endeavour looks at information from the media on environmental issues and how it influences social thinking and critical reflection according to Agenda 21 (UN, 1992). The second analysis describes the theoretical support of the scope of the information broadcasted by the media considering two posible scenarios of the use of public space: 1) as citizen’s custody 2) as institutional support of political power. The proposition holds that the 80 years and more of the ruling of the Institutional Revolutionary Party in Veracruz, has left its mark on the dissimination of information about politics, and wonders what happens in the public arena of environmental information. The study provides the results of a comparison of the performance of the regional presses on environmental issues in 2012 and 2103. The final discussion reflects on the important role of the media in the construction of reality, and therefore the journalist as the first subject to be involved in profound changes in lifestyle, social organization, forms of thought, knowledge and ethics. <![CDATA[<b>Trends and transformations within cultural journalism</b>: <b>a case study of newsmagazine <i>Visão</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In the last ten years, the configuration of cultural journalism, regarding editorial and business models, has undergone profound changes. Nowadays, it cannot be separable from the context of cultural and creative industries, which requires a redefinition and expansion of the field, reinforcing its complexity, broadness and heterogeneity (Rivera, 2003). The emergence of more consumer-driven formats within journalism broadly speaking (Fürsich, 2012) is thus transforming cultural journalism into a continuum between culture, lifestyle and consumption (Kristensen, 2010), challenging existing definitions of cultural journalism as a distinct journalistic object (Kristensen & From, 2012). In this article, we intended to verify whether the identified trends are present in the Portuguese press media environment, using a newsmagazine (Visão) and its supplement (Visão Sete) as a case study. Combining quantitative (content analysis) and qualitative methodological approaches (interviews and discourse analysis), we stated that while Visão Sete is the clear example of the contemporary approach to culture as a service and a consumer good related to lifestyle, the culture section of the newsmagazine conveys a classic (and somewhat reductive) approach to culture, primarily related to artistic manifestations - which lead us to infer that nowadays newspapers and magazines are still looking for its position regarding cultural journalism. <![CDATA[<b>A deliberative public sphere? Picturing Portuguese political blogs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542014000400012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Deliberative democracies are based on the principle of citizens’ participation. However, election turnouts and citizens’ alienation are signs of a political disengagement that could endanger the foundations of democratic systems. The spaces in which political debate and rational argumentation between equals may take place have diminished, yet new digital technologies have brought up potentialities in the promotion of online, horizontal and deliberative communication. Political blogs have been one of the most studied platforms, as they allow citizens engaged in political discussion and argumentation to establish a public sphere in which matters of public concern are debated. Nonetheless, issues of political polarization, fragmentation and non-rational debate have also been pointed out to limit the most optimistic perspectives over political blogs. By using the social network analysis, this paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the role of Portuguese political blogs, by assessing its level of deliberation.