Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Observatorio (OBS*)]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=1646-595420170002&lang=pt vol. 11 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>O Programa “Mais Médicos” na Mídia Brasileira</b>: <b>estado da arte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt O Programa Mais Médicos foi instituído, no Brasil, em 2013. Desde então, tem recebido especial atenção da mídia em decorrência de suas inovações no campo da atenção à saúde, mas também pelo fato de incluir médicos provenientes de outros países para atuarem aqui. O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender o estado da arte do conhecimento produzido academicamente sobre a relação da mídia com o Programa Mais Médicos. Utiliza a revisão narrativa como metodologia e se divide em duas partes: a primeira, de caráter histórico e, a segunda, reservada a indicar as análises acadêmicas sobre a produção midiática relativa ao Programa. Identifica um volume ainda modesto de pesquisas sobre este tema e que os resultados conhecidos se referem prioritariamente ao período de anúncio, lançamento e início da execução do Programa. Conclui que as pesquisas realizadas já permitem indicar ao menos três elementos importantes que caracterizam a cobertura da imprensa brasileira acerca do Mais Médicos: o viés político, a polarização das opiniões inicialmente veiculadas e o princípio do que se pode considerar uma mudança de enfoque, a partir do momento em que pesquisas de opinião revelam a aprovação popular do programa.<hr/>The More Doctors Program was established in Brazil in 2013. Since then, it has received special attention of mass media due to its innovations in the field of health care, but also because it includes doctors from other countries to work here. The objective of this work is to know the current understanding of the academic knowledge about the media's relationship with the More Doctors Program. Uses narrative review as methodology and is divided into two parts: the first, about the history and, the second, reserved to indicate academic analyzes of the media production about the Program. We identified a still small number of papers about this topic and the results that are known refeer prioritily at the anouncement time lapse, launch period and execution of More Doctors. Concludes that it is still modest the volume of research on this topic and the results are known primarily refer to the announcement period, launch and early implementation of the Program. <![CDATA[<b>Emotional Design in Web Interfaces</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In the area of human-computer interaction, over the last decade, there has been a growing interest on emotional factors, valuing above all the user experience. Emotions play a crucial role - in terms of both performance and influence - in areas such as attention, motivation, memory, decision-making and behavior. Therefore, not only emotion influences the interaction with websites but they also trigger emotional responses, and these responses can determine which website users choose. Therefore, were analyzed the emotional responses triggered in the interaction with Duolingo's interface (a learning languages website) taking into account the different components of emotional design, using data gathering instruments such as eye tracking and self-reporting methods. In this way, the present work intended to contribute to the design of interfaces that appeal in a greater extent to the users' emotions, in order to improve their user experience while increasing their level of engagement. <![CDATA[<b>Spectacularized elements in the prime time television news</b>: <b>the ‘Charlie Hebdo' case</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt El objetivo principal del presente artículo es analizar si el tratamiento dado por los informativos de prime time de la cadena privada española Telecinco a las noticias sobre el atentado al semanario satírico Charlie Hebdo, perpetrado el 7 de enero de 2015 en París, se puede considerar espectacularizado. Este hecho tuvo una transcendencia mundial y aún se localiza poca investigación sobre sus aspectos comunicativos. A través del análisis de contenido, con creación de categorías múltiples, se ha podido obtener datos a lo largo de 14 días de emisión, con un análisis global de 99 noticias, que nos aproxima a las técnicas empleadas en la cobertura de este evento, tanto desde el punto de vista de la imagen como del texto verbal. En los resultados, tanto de tipo cuantitativo como cualitativo, se ha podido constatar que ha habido un tratamiento espectacularizado, apoyado en la dramatización, el conflicto, la explotación de las imágenes, la exageración y la fragmentación, generando una tematización extrema del caso Charlie Hebdo. Esto llama a la reflexión, no sólo por las técnicas detectadas en la construcción de la noticia, sino por cómo otras informaciones de igual o mayor relevancia quedan de lado, ausentes en el conocimiento del público.<hr/>The main objective of this research is to analyze the coverage done by the Spanish television channel Telecinco of the attack to the satirical French magazine Charlie Hebdo, dated in Paris on 7 January 2015, in order to assess if there has been spectacularization or not in its treatment. The terrorist outrage had a global repercussion but there is still little research about its communicative aspects. The content analysis focused on 14 days prime time bulletins, with a global amount of 99 pieces of news observed. Different categories have been created to study the visual characteristics, as well as the verbal text. The quantitative and qualitative results confirm that dramatization, conflict, reiteration, exaggeration and fragmentation supported a spectacularized coverage, leading to an extreme tematization of the Charlie Hebdo case. The discussion points out that it is necessary to really think about the techniques to construct news in a plural and balanced coverage of public issues. <![CDATA[<b>El smartphone como metamedio</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artículo parte de la teoría del ordenador como metamedio desarrollada inicialmente por Kay y Goldberg (1977) y retomada años después por Manovich (2013) para trasladarla al ámbito del teléfono móvil en su versión smartphone. Tal propuesta se encuadra dentro de la denominada era post-PC y de computación ubicua, dominada por el uso creciente del smartphone como principal tecnología de comunicación, información y convergencia. Si el ordenador puede considerarse como el paradigma de metamedio del siglo XX, el smartphone o “teléfono inteligente” se está convirtiendo cada vez más en el verdadero metamedio del siglo XXI.<hr/>This article is based on the theory of computers as a metamedium initially developed by Kay and Goldberg (1977), retaken afterwards by Manovich (2013) being thus transferred to the mobile phone sphere in its smartphone version. This proposal is related to the so-called post-PC and ubiquitous computing era, which is dominated by the increasing use of smartphones as the main technology for communication, information, and convergence. If computer can be regarded as the paradigmatic metamedium of the 20th century, smartphones are becoming the 21st century metamedium with steady increase. <![CDATA[<b>Crianças até 8 anos e Tecnologias Digitais no Lar</b>: <b>Os pais como modelos, protetores, supervisores e companheiros</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Pretende-se com este artigo dar a conhecer as práticas digitais de crianças (com menos de 8 anos de idade) no seu ambiente familiar, mais especificamente em casa. Os pais são os principais mediadores relativamente ao contacto de crianças destas idades com meios digitais, tendo também um papel relevante ao influenciar as suas práticas, perceções e atitudes. Apresentamos assim alguns resultados relativos a um projeto Europeu, baseado numa metodologia qualitativa, nomeadamente na grounded theory, onde recorremos a entrevistas a pais e crianças como método de recolha de dados. Os resultados revelam que os pais desempenham diferentes papéis - são vistos como modelos, protetores, companheiros e supervisores. Estes diferentes papéis relacionam-se diretamente com as suas práticas pessoais e, principalmente, com as suas perceções e atitudes em relação às tecnologias.<hr/>This chapter presents an overview of the digital practices of young children (under 8 years old) in the home. At such an early age, parents are the main mediators of the contact with digital media, thus paying a preponderant role in shaping the young children's practices, perceptions and attitudes. In this chapter, we present partial results of a European-scale qualitative project that followed a methodology based on grounded theory, using interviews to families as method. Our findings reveal different roles played by the parents - role models, gatekeepers, companions, and supervisors. We also found that these different roles are related to the parenting style and also to the parents' own digital practices, and most importantly, perceptions and attitudes towards digital media. <![CDATA[<b><i>No Hate Speech Movement</i></b>: <b>evolving genres and discourses in the European online campaign to fight discrimination and racism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In March 2013, the Council of Europe (COE) launched the No Hate Speech Movement, a media youth campaign against hate speech in cyberspace. In this paper, we analyze a corpus collected from the COE's website. The corpus includes web site pages designed by the COE's campaigners, as well as materials such as self-made videos and photos posted on the blog by the general public. We focus on the No Hate Speech Movement landing page and the Hate Speech Watch page. Following the tradition of social semiotics, we propose to investigate the verbal and visual features across a range of different genres, in an attempt to verify whether the interaction of different modes involves any contamination in discursive practices, which could lead to the evolution of existing genres or to the birth of new text types. Moreover, we focus on the relationship between community and context in order to verify whether web-based communication alters the terms for determining genre. Finally, we try to understand the role of the audience by concentrating on the notion of participation. <![CDATA[<b>New Discourses developing around the management of intangible assets in companies</b>: <b>the evolution of commercial and corporate brands in Spain</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper gives an up-to-date analysis of trends in managing intangible assets reflecting the various agents comprising the communication system in Spain. To this end, qualitative techniques were applied (Delphi questionnaires and in-depths interviews) on the understanding that the best way to find out the underlying reasons for a change and its subsequent consequences is to examine quality over quantity. Experts and academics, professionals in brand communication, advertisers and media managers replied to questions on the current method of managing a company's intangible assets and thus define the discourse issued from corporations and commercial brands to their stakeholders. Analysis of the results will enable us to confirm that we are certainly looking at a new communication scenario, if not a change in paradigm. <![CDATA[<b>Reversal of Gender Disparity in Journalism Education- Study of Ghana Institute of Journalism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Journalism has practically become a feminine profession across the world. To understand the root of the flow of women into the Journalism profession it is pertinent to begin at the university education level. Gallagher's 1992 worldwide survey of female students in 83 journalism institutions reveals a significant increase in number of female students. Djerf-Pierre (2007) and others argue along Bourdieu's conception of education as a form of social capital which empowers, enables and enhances women's competitiveness in a pre-dominantly androgynous social arena. The study analyses 16 years of enrolment data of the Academic Affairs Unit of the Ghana Institute of Journalism (GIJ), a leading Journalism, and Communication University in Africa, to understand the growing feminization of the journalism profession in Ghana. To this end the study, employs the UNESCO gender parity index model (GPI) to ascertain the gender parity ratio of male to female students enrolled at the University. Findings indicate a significant shift in the gender parity ratio in favour of women in the journalism education. <![CDATA[<b>Herramienta de evaluación cualitativa para valorar apropiación de las TIC</b> <b>A qualitative assessment tool to measure appropriation of ICT´S</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt La postmodernidad ha traído consigo una híper-valoración del uso de las TIC, dejando muchas veces de lado, el impacto que estas tienen en la conformación de una sociedad más igualitaria. Consciente de la importancia de este tema, presentamos a la comunidad académica los principales resultados que se obtuvieron tras la aplicación de una herramienta de evaluación cualitativa a un proyecto TIC en una comunidad educativa con la aplicación de una prueba piloto. Dicha herramienta fue diseñada tras un proceso de fundamentación teórica y de aplicación que se viene desarrollando desde el 2013. Este escrito hace un recorrido por el proceso de investigación antes mencionado, iniciando por la justificación teórica y metodológica de la necesidad de generar una herramienta de evaluación TIC que vaya más allá de lo cuantitativo. Luego se centra en la formulación misma de la herramienta, su aplicación en un proyecto de inclusión digital de la Fundación Telefónica y en la presentación, desde una perspectiva comunicativa, de los resultados más relevantes, para terminar con las posibilidades ofrecidas por la Herramienta de Evaluación.<hr/>Postmodernism has brought about a hyper-valuation of the use of ICT, often leaving aside the impact that these have in shaping a more egalitarian society. Aware of the importance of this issue, we offer to the academic community this article that gathers, succinctly, the main results obtained after the application of a qualitative assessment tool to an ICT project in a learning community. This tool is the result of a more than three-year-long research process, which included the design of the theoretically supported model and its application via a pilot test. This paper describes the aforementioned research process, starting from the theoretical and methodological justification of the need to generate this ICT evaluation tool that goes beyond the quantitative, going through the development tool itself, to its application in a project of digital inclusion sponsored by Telefónica Foundation. It also discusses the reasons within the communicative perspective that justify it, its most relevant results and, finally, the possibilities offered by said Assessment Tool. <![CDATA[<b>Facebook and public radio. The agenda setting during the agricultural strike in Colombia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artículo presenta el análisis de las publicaciones que dejaron los usuarios de Facebook en la cuenta del programa informativo Boyacá Noticias de la emisora de interés público de la Gobernación de Boyacá, Colombia durante el Paro Nacional Agrario, ocurrido en Agosto de 2013, cuando el País vivió una de sus más importantes crisis económicas y de orden público de los últimos años. A través de un análisis de contenido, se analizan los mensajes y las interacciones entre los usuarios y los realizadores del noticiero radial a través de Facebook con el fin de conocer el nivel de interacción de los profesionales con su audiencia y la variación de la agenda setting del medio a la luz de la participación del público. La investigación encuentra que los usuarios del Facebook de Boyacá Noticias se apropian del espacio para publicar sus mensajes, opiniones, valoraciones y denuncias, pero se presenta una baja interacción entre los profesionales del medio con los usuarios de la Red.<hr/>This article presents an analysis of some facebook postings and reviews written by users of Boyacá Noticias, a news programme which belongs to the non-profit radio station Gobernación de Boyacá in Colombia. The case took place in August, 2013, during the Agricultural National Strike when the country went through one of the most important economic and public order crisis in the last few years during the agricultural strik. Through the content analysis, we highlight the topics and messages in order to know the intractions between users and the radio news program directors and the alteration of the agenda setting in the ligth of the public participation. The research concludes that Facebook users got hold of Boyaca news´ wall to post their messages, opinions, appreciations and complaints, but the lack of interaction was notably evidenced between media professionals and them. <![CDATA[<b>Connect with the public</b>: <b>strategic design of user communities by convergent TV</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542017000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Los desafíos de la interacción humana pasan por la necesidad básica de conectar. La digitalización en televisión derivó en un entorno convergente que fortalece la “desmasificación de los medios de comunicación de masas”. Los consumos cada vez más personalizados, selectivos, compartidos y comentados obligan a estrategias que permitan conectar directamente con cada usuario que, al mismo tiempo, busca su propia conexión con otros públicos y con el medio. En este artículo se parte del interés estratégico de las comunidades de usuarios en la TV convergente, especialmente entre el público millennial. Se concluye que apenas se han desarrollado aún sus potencialidades y se abre una vía de discusión para mejorar la conexión entre la programación transmedia y las audiencias.<hr/>The challenges of human interaction go through the basic need to connect. TV digitization resulted in a converged environment that strengthens the "de-massification of the mass media". The increasingly personalized, targeted, shared and commented consumption require strategies to connect directly to each user, while seeking his own connection with other public and with the media. This article is part of the strategic interests of the user communities in the converging TV, especially among the millennial audience. We conclude that have barely yet developed its potential and opens an avenue of discussion to improve the connection between the transmedia programming and audiences.