Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Observatorio (OBS*)]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=1646-595420190003&lang=pt vol. 13 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of gender asymmetries in the professional group of journalists in Castilla-La Mancha</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Los perfiles profesionales, especialmente los que atañen al periodismo, no pueden entenderse como una cuestión universal y abstracta, pues están construidos sobre factores contextuales como los espacios de trabajo, la tipología de las empresas y las competencias requeridas. En este estudio se analizan las asimetrías de género en las condiciones laborales de los profesionales del periodismo en Castilla-La Mancha, una comunidad autónoma caracterizada por su identidad sociodemográfica rural y por su estructura mediática compuesta por micromedios. Se aplica una metodología cuantitativa, cuyo instrumento de recogida ha sido la encuesta, y un posterior análisis estadístico descriptivo de variables categóricas. El cuestionario, que ha tomado como base algunas investigaciones de referencia en la materia en los últimos quince años, ha sido respondido por una muestra representativa de 179 periodistas de la región - 87 hombres y 92 mujeres - pertenecientes a 85 medios de comunicación de ámbito local, distribuidos en los sectores de prensa impresa, radio, televisión y medios nativos digitales. Los resultados muestran que persisten las desigualdades en algunas cuestiones endémicas como las dificultades de conciliación, la brecha salarial o el techo de cristal, pero también en otros aspectos menos evidentes como el grado de satisfacción sobre la profesión, las expectativas laborales e incluso la percepción sobre las influencias y presiones en el ejercicio profesional<hr/>Professional profiles, especially those related to journalism, cannot be understood as a universal and abstract issue, since they are built on contextual factors such as workspaces, the typology of companies and the skills required. This study analyses gender asymmetries in the working conditions of journalism professionals in Castilla-La Mancha, an autonomous community characterised by its rural socio-demographic identity and its media structure made up of micro-media. A quantitative methodology is applied, whose collection instrument has been the survey, and a subsequent descriptive statistical analysis of categorical variables. The questionnaire, which has been based on some reference research on the subject in the last fifteen years, has been answered by a representative sample of 179 journalists from the region - 87 men and 92 women - belonging to 85 local media, distributed in the sectors of printed press, radio, television and digital native media. The results show that inequalities persist in some endemic issues such as conciliation difficulties, the wage gap or the glass ceiling, but also in other less evident aspects such as the degree of satisfaction with the profession, job expectations and even the perception of influences and pressures on professional practice. <![CDATA[<b>Reflexões sobre ética e autorregulação no exercício do jornalismo por amadores</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt O artigo apresenta percepções de não-jornalistas de dois coletivos brasileiros sobre valores deontológicos do jornalismo. A partir de entrevistas com membros do Mídia Independente Coletiva e do Carranca, debatemos possibilidades de autorregulação nas rotinas de amadores que praticam atos de jornalismo, ou seja, apuram e divulgam informações por conta própria, sem filtros editoriais de veículos jornalísticos. Conclui-se, entre outros aspectos, que os sujeitos da pesquisa reconhecem os valores da deontologia jornalística, mas se mostram resistentes à autorregulação por verem nela um caminho de censura às suas práticas.<hr/>The article presentes perceptions by non-journalists from two Brazilian collectives regarding deontological values of journalism. From the interviews with members from Collective Independent Media group (Mídia Independente Coletiva) and from Carranca, a discussion on the possibilities of selfregulation in the routines of amateurs who practise acts of journalism took place, that is, people who investigate and publish information on their own account, without editorial filters by any journalistic media. The conclusion drawn, among other aspects, is that the research subjects acknowledge the values of journalism deontology, but still display resistance to selfregulation as it is deemed by them as a pathway for censorship to their practices. <![CDATA[<b>Utilização de tablets e desenvolvimento de competências digitais</b>: <b>que impacto?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artigo debruça-se sobre o impacto da utilização de tablets no desenvolvimento de competências digitais, especificamente nas áreas de Literacia de informação e de dados e de Comunicação e colaboração, de 80 alunos do 3.º ciclo do ensino básico de dois agrupamentos de escola da zona centro de Portugal, no âmbito de um projeto educativo de um-para-um (1:1). Trata-se de um estudo de caso enquadrado pelo DigComp, Quadro Europeu de Competência Digital para Cidadãos, enquanto referencial para a construção dos instrumentos de recolha de dados e sua interpretação. Os dados foram recolhidos por questionário e focus groups. Os resultados sugerem um reduzido impacto da utilização de tablets ao nível do desenvolvimento das competências digitais estudadas, e apontam para razões que lhe podem estar subjacentes (por exemplo, a forma como os tablets foram utilizados pelos professores). Neste sentido são sugeridas recomendações para um uso mais eficaz de tablets e, atendendo ao contexto em que o estudo foi realizado, são também indicados caminhos para investigações futuras.<hr/>This article presents results on the impact of the use of tablets in the development of lower secondary students' digital competence, regarding Information and data literacy and Communicaiton and collaboration, within the scope of a one-to-one (1:1) educational project. The case study adopted and adapted the European Digital Competence Framework for Citizens as background and guidance for the construction of data collection instruments. The data were collected through a questionnaire and focus groups. Results suggest a reduced impact of the use of tablets on the development of competences under study and point to reasons that may be underlying it (for example, how tablets were used by the teachers). In this sense, the article suggests recommendations for a more efficient use of tablets and indicates directions for future research. <![CDATA[<b>Remix e cultura participativa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A utilização da linguagem num discurso constitui um espaço de negociação de significado e de interreconhecimento, ancorando a comunicação na convocação de conhecimento apropriado, experimentado e articulado em função das circunstâncias de uma situação social, de acordo com o reconhecimento de património simbólico partilhado (Goffman, 1947). Uma crítica à utilização de discursos audiovisuais cidadã(o)s para afirmar a narrativa da mudança em processos comunicacionais baseada no papel atribuído às TIC exige questionar as bases de uma 'nova' cultura Remix [1], ou seja, as 'novas' formas de (re)criação, consumo e interacção comunicativa, o conceito de convergência, e os processos de inteligência coletiva participativa enquanto espaço de práticas discursivas e performativas com ênfase deterministia nos instrumentos utilizados, reafirmando o primado dos processos de interreconhecimento que as tornam possíveis. É objectivo deste trabalho oferecer um conjunto de reflexões teóricas sobre a necessária ancoragem social pré-ressignificadora, procedendo a uma actualização da temática do (re)enquadramento discursivo mediante a convocação de heranças teórico-paradigmáticas e de dois exemplos onde tal ancoragem é demonstrada a partir da aplicação de estratégias metodológicas que incluem a análise fílmica e o método das máscaras. A análise destes exemplos permitiu concluir do carácter decisivo da revalorização do contexto, do perfil de actores e actrizes sociais envolvidas/os, e do processo de recepção e (re)interpretação para a ressignificação.<hr/>The use of language in a discourse constitutes a space for meaning negotiation and interrecognition, anchoring communication on the summoning of acquired, experienced and articulated knowledge according to the circumstances of a social situation, according to the recognition of shared symbolic heritage (Goffman, 1947). A critique of the use of citizen audiovisual discourses to affirm the narrative of the change in communication processes based on the role assigned to ICTs requires questioning the basis of a 'new' Remix culture, that is, the 'new' forms of communication (re)creation, consumption and interaction, as well as the concept of convergence and participatory collective intelligence processes as spaces of discursive and performative practices with a deterministic emphasis on the instruments used, while reaffirming the primacy of interrecognition processes that make them possible. The objective of this work is to offer a set of theoretical reflections on the necessary pre-re-signification social anchoring, effectively updating the discursive (re)framing theme through the convening of theoretical-paradigmatic heritages and two examples where such anchorage is demonstrated from the application of methodological strategies that include film analysis and the masking method. The analysis of these examples allowed us to conclude from the decisive nature of the revaluation of the context, the profile of social actors and actresses involved, and the process of reception and (re) interpretation for resignification. <![CDATA[<b>Amateur subtitling in a dubbing country</b>: <b>The reception of Iranian audience</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Although dubbing is the official and dominant modality of translating foreign films and television series in Iran, amateur subtitling has been increasingly used by the Iranian audience for audiovisual products that are not dubbed, or at least not soon enough or not without substantial 'cultural appropriation.' Given the increasing attention paid to viewers' reception in the domain of audiovisual translation, this study attempts to explore the reception of Iranian viewers of the non-professional subtitling into Persian. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed for the present research. Initially, the qualitative analysis of the focus groups conducted with consumers of such products suggested five main themes: translational, translatorial and technical expectations as well as the advantages and disadvantages. The quantitative analysis of the survey data confirmed the five themes in the second phase of the study. <![CDATA[<b>O futuro da imprensa portuguesa</b>: <b>há lugar para o Estado?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Os jornais estão em declínio acentuado em Portugal, a nível de circulação e de receitas. Estilos de vida e tecnologia explicam a tendência que poderá, a curto ou médio prazo, levar ao desaparecimento dos títulos de informação nacional. Os jornais desempenham, contudo, funções únicas no campo mediático, o que levanta questões sobre o impacto desta tendência nas democracias. Crescentemente, tem sido apontado que a crise na imprensa escrita não pode ser resolvida apenas em contexto do mercado liberal e que há lugar para uma intervenção legítima dos Estados. Partindo da identificação e caracterização do desempenho dos principais grupos de media no sector da imprensa escrita, este artigo discute as medidas de apoio do Estado à imprensa portuguesa, destacando outros possíveis cenários de intervenção.<hr/>The newspapers are experiencing a sharp decline in Portugal, in terms of circulation and revenues. Lifestyle and technology explain this trend that may, in the short or medium term, lead to the disappearance of national information titles. Newspapers, however, perform unique functions in the media field, raising questions about the impact of this trend on democracies. Increasingly, it has been pointed out that the crisis in the written press cannot be solved only in the context of the liberal market and that there is room for a legitimate intervention of the States. Based on the identification and characterization of the performance of the main media groups in the print media sector, this article discusses the state support measures for the Portuguese press, highlighting other possible intervention scenarios. <![CDATA[<b>Paving the way for regulation</b>: <b>how the case against Facebook stacked up</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The case against Facebook has been stacking up for some time now, but in the last two years it gained further consistency. The Brexit referendum and the American presidential elections brought to light the dominant social network as a threat to democratic processes and liberal societies, with the Cambridge Analytica scandal further undermining Facebook's credibility. Now that the first official reports have been published and a growing stack of literature and scientific analysis is available, it is time for a systematized review of both the repercussions of Facebook on democracy and public speech, and the proposed ways to tame it. I start by framing the problem by using the first official reports on the use of Facebook as a tool to undermine democratic processes; I then proceed to explain how this social network has evolved from a champion of liberation across the Middle East into a weapon of mass interference and manipulation both by foreign governments and local agencies; finally, I trace the possible paths forward considering the referenced literature. The point made in this essay is that it became inevitable for liberal democracies to regulate big tech, starting with social media. Facebook is the case in point, due to its massive scale and seriousness posed by its several cases of misconduct - but the whole movement should lead to a new take on the role of technology in society. <![CDATA[<b>Discourses regarding construction of youth identity in Latin America</b>: <b>Political, educational and cultural phenomenon. A look from colombia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-59542019000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artículo resulta de la investigación Análisis del impacto de los discursos socio-comunicativos glocales en la construcción de la referencia en torno al concepto de identidad juvenil latinoamericana. Caso Colombia, y tiene por objetivo discutir los resultados de cara a concepciones y prácticas de tipo supra-nacional. La investigación exploró la idea de una identidad juvenil común latinoamericana basándose en referencias icónicas seleccionadas por jóvenes universitarios. Tuvo como antecedente metodológico el trabajo realizado en 2015 por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, y entre 2016 y 2017 la metodología se implementó, con algunas variaciones, en Colombia y Argentina. Para el caso colombiano se emplearon herramientas participativas a través de un semillero de investigación con estudiantes de comunicación de la Universidad de Medellín. Los resultados parciales se triangularon con datos recogidos en encuestas y grupos de discusión. Los resultados finales sugieren el seguimiento de agendas supranacionales que se manifiestan en discursos mediáticos y educativos.<hr/>This article results from the research project entitled: Analysis of the impact of socio-communicative glocal discourses on the construction of the reference around the concept of Latin American youth identity. Case of Colombia and it´s objective is to discuss our results with regard to supra-national conceptions and practices. This research project explores the idea of a common Latin American youth identity, based on iconic references selected by university students. Its methodological background consists of the work done in 2015 at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. This methodology was implemented, with some variations between 2016 and 2017 in Colombia and Argentina. For the Colombian case, participatory tools were used through a seedbed of research with communication students from Universidad de Medellin. The partial results were triangulated with data collected in surveys and discussion groups. The final results suggest the follow-up of supranational agendas embedded in media and educational discourses.