Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Observatorio (OBS*)]]> vol. 13 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Tay is you</b>: <b>The attribution of responsibility in the algorithmic culture</b>]]> Social media have changed the communication practices by creating an acute need for continuous interaction. The use of social chatbots is growing as an effective way to communicate with publics. Bots have become social actors and then, someone must account for their actions. Since responsibility is bounded to agency and rationality, it cannot be directly attributed to bots. Who should be held responsible for non-human beings' actions, particularly when the consequences of these actions are negative? We address this controversy from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. Firstly, we discuss the adequacy of the notions of moral responsibility and accountability regarding non-human artificial agents, as they are ruled by complex, intentionally opaque and unpredictable interactions and processes. We do it from the two approaches currently predominant: context-dependent and structuralist. Secondly, we draw on the assumption that the failure of a computer system is an opportunity to gain knowledge about the interested powers behind its design and functioning. Then, taking the concept of media frame as an implicit way of spotting the agent of the story, we perform an exploratory analysis on how responsibility was attributed by the media in the paradigmatic case of the transformation of Tay, a chatbot launched by Microsoft in 2016, turned into a racist, Nazi and homophobic hate speaker. Our results illustrate the difficulties media experienced in consistently attributing the responsibility for the chatbots' malfunction. Results show the discourse is, in general, simplistic, non-critical and misleading, and tends to depict a reality that favors business's interests. We conclude that, while all the actors interacting with the chatbot share the responsibility of its actions, it is only Microsoft who must account for these actions, both retrospectively and prospectively. <![CDATA[<b>The media of Consumption and the Consumption of time</b>: <b>How a consumer in fast-paced economy use traditional and new media tools</b>]]> Research is ongoing about how the New Media impact on Traditional Media. Despite rapid change in the options for how we can interact with and consume media, some of our preferences for needs to consume have not shifted dramatically. This research aims to investigate the patterns of media consumption, and assesses the amount of time people allocate to different media. The study is informed by uses and gratifications theory (UGT), channel complementarity theory and time allocation theory. The article looks at the amount of time spent reading newspapers and magazines, watching television, listening to the radio, using the old or new media, and activities online and offline while at work or out of the work. It investigates whether traditional media are still relevant in this new media environment and identifies consumption practices. A survey was held among consumers who have various media experiences (N = 400) ━ and for the first time in Zimbabwe. Differences between consumers (media users) using traditional media channels and those using new media platforms are identified and discussed. However, some challenges exist, such as the limited number of Apple iPads and tablets. These findings implied that targeting the millennials remains a challenge as respondents are fragmented across various media platforms. <![CDATA[<b>TV news and children's audiences</b>: <b>why the bet on segmented journalism for children</b>]]> Estudos recentes documentam a presença das notícias no quotidiano dos públicos infantis, mostrando que estes conteúdos são importantes para o seu conhecimento do mundo e a sua socialização (Alon-Tirosh & Lemish, 2014; Delorme, 2013; Silveira, 2019). No contexto português, são ainda escassas as pesquisas desenvolvidas sobre esta problemática, pelo que desenvolvemos este estudo com o objetivo de analisar a natureza das interações entre as crianças e as notícias. Metodologicamente, esta investigação envolveu a aplicação de inquéritos por questionário e a dinamização de grupos de foco junto de crianças a frequentar o ensino primário nas escolas do Concelho de Paredes (Distrito do Porto). Os resultados mostram que as crianças contactam habitualmente com a atualidade, sobretudo pela televisão, juntamente com a família, embora demonstrem pouco interesse em seguir certas notícias. Os resultados evidenciam que as crianças desejam contactar com notícias mais adequadas aos seus gostos e às suas capacidades de compreensão. Posto que a televisão se constitui como o meio privilegiado para as famílias e, consequentemente, os públicos infantis, acompanharem a atualidade, julgamos que as conclusões apontadas no artigo poderão servir para informar as empresas mediáticas e outros agentes sobre aspetos a considerar no desenvolvimento de espaços informativos concebidos para os mais novos.<hr/>Recent studies document the presence of news in children's daily lives, showing that they are important for their knowledge of the world and their socialization (Alon-Tirosh & Lemish, 2014, Delorme, 2013; Silveira, 2019). It Portugal, there are few researches on this problematic. For this reason, this article intends to analyse the interactions between the children and the news. Methodologically, this research involved the application of questionnaires and the dynamization of focus groups with children attending primary school, in Paredes (District of Porto). The results show that children follow usually current events, especially within television, with the family, although they show little interest in following these subjects. These audiences wish to follow more interesting and appropriate themes. Given that television is the favourite medium for following the news by the families, and the children, we believe that this study could inform media companies and other agents about aspects to be considered in the development of information spaces designed for the youngest. <![CDATA[<b>Technologies and children up to 8 years old</b>: <b>what changes in one year?</b>]]> In this chapter, we present a longitudinal study which aims to explore the involvement of children up to 8 years old and their families with digital technologies, focusing perceptions and use, during a one-year period. In a first phase, ten families with children up to 8 years old were interviewed. In a second phase, we interviewed eight of the initial ten families. In both moments, children elected the tablet as their favourite device, and their preferred activities were playing games and watching videos on YouTube. Due to an increase in their reading and writing skills, on the second visit to families, we observed that children had become more autonomous in their digital practices, being able to search about their interests and refine such searches. In addition, parents showed more positive perceptions regarding the use of technologies by their kids, promoting their use for scholar searches. The type of parental mediation is related to the parents' perceptions about technologies: parents who consider their use beneficial for more pedagogic purposes, encourage their children, monitoring and supporting them, thus leading to their children using and perceiving the Web as an important tool to explore personal and school interests; parents who hold a less positive view about digital media do not encourage their use, not even for pedagogic purposes, frequently restricting screen-time, and therefore their children use the devices for limited time and mostly for play activities. <![CDATA[<b>Influencer Marketing in the Growth Hacking strategy of digital brands</b>]]> This article analyses the presence of influencer marketing in business communications strategies in the new economy, based on the results of an exploratory investigation carried out in accordance with the methodology of the Grounded Theory. The categorisation of the information, obtained from the elaboration of the case studies of three digitally native brands (Wallapop, Westwing and Fotocasa), shows that influencer marketing actions are part of their 360º communications strategy. Actions with influencers are developed in a synergistic way with other advertising and public relations actions, both on and offline. In terms of their approach, they follow Marston's strategic planning model, which consists of four phases: research, planning, execution and evaluation. In this sense, its particularities include the decision-making based on data, as well as the empowerment of the user and the brands' agents. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions about media in teacher trainers of early childhood education in Chile</b>]]> Cada vez más los avances tecnológicos como los televisores inteligentes, computadores, tablets o pizarras digitales interactivas son parte del inventario de los jardines infantiles. Estas adquisiciones no han ido acompañadas de una educación mediática que permita que los niños y niñas aprendan a convivir con los medios desde la educación infantil. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer cuáles son las percepciones sobre los medios de comunicación que tienen los profesores universitarios de la educación infantil chilena, lo que permitirá, a su vez, aproximarnos a establecer cómo es incorporada la educación mediática en la formación docente de este nivel educativo. Para ello, se aplicó un cuestionario a distancia a profesores de universidades chilenas que imparten cursos relacionados con los medios de comunicación en carreras de educación infantil. Los resultados muestran que los profesores que enseñan sobre lenguaje y comunicación responden más a la tradición apocalíptica de los medios, mientras los de TIC siguen la tradición apologética.<hr/>Increasingly, technological advances have made smart televisions, computers, tablets or interactive whiteboards are part of the inventory of kindergartens. Despite some attempts to keep the kindergartens free from the presence of the media, the desire to take advantage of technological advances has made televisions, computers, tablets and electronic blackboards being part of the inventory of these schools. These acquisitions have not been accompanied by a media education that allows children to learn to live with the media from early childhood education. The present study has as objective to know what the perceptions about the means of communication are that professors of Chilean children's education have, which will allow us, in turn, to approximate to establish how media education is incorporated in teacher training of this educational level. To this end, a distance questionnaire was applied to professors from Chilean universities who taught courses in media relations in early childhood careers. The results show that professors who teach language and communication respond more to the apocalyptic tradition of the media, while those of ICT follow the apologist tradition. <![CDATA[<b>The emergence of smart speakers</b>: <b>challenges and opportunities for radio broadcasting in the context of the big data</b>]]> O presente artigo, de caráter exploratório, analisa a emergência dos smart speakers e a reintermediação que o dispositivo opera no mercado de mídia sonora, num contexto de crescente investimento corporativo em big data. No percurso, são elencados os desafios no horizonte e as oportunidades para as tradicionais emissoras de rádio, que precisarão se tornar parceiras de gigantes de tecnologia para assegurar um lugar de destaque no novo ecossistema midiático, em que hábitos de escuta antes solidamente estabelecidos são redesenhados. Além de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, foram realizadas entrevistas com gestores de duas emissoras brasileiras que vêm investindo na distribuição de conteúdos radiofônicos por meio de assistentes de voz, permitindo-nos refletir sobre o papel que estes novos intermediários podem vir a desempenhar no mercado de mídia sonora.<hr/>This exploratory article analyzes the emergence of smart speakers and the re-intermediacy carried out by this device in audio media market, in a context of growing corporate investment in big data. In this theoretical path, we summarize are challenges on the horizon and the opportunities for traditional radio broadcasters, who will be compelled to seek partnerships with technology giants to ensure a prominent place in the new media ecosystem, where previously established listening habits are redesigned. In addition to bibliographic and documental research, interviews were conducted with managers of two Brazilian broadcasters who have been investing in the distribution of radio content through voice assistants, allowing us to reflect on the role these new intermediaries may play on audio media market. <![CDATA[<b>Culture section today</b>: <b>From theoretical descriptions to practical reality. Case study of print media in Spain</b>]]> Este artículo estudia la sección Cultura de los medios impresos con el objetivo de concretar la coherencia entre las propuestas teóricas de los investigadores y el ejercicio práctico de la profesión tomando como referencia el caso de España. Se desarrolla una amplia revisión bibliográfica de propuestas teóricas y empíricas, poniendo en relación los trabajos que sugieren cómo debería ser esta especialización y los resultados de investigación de quiénes describen cómo es en la práctica. ¿Hay una brecha entre ambos? Y si fuera así, ¿dónde estriban las diferencias? La presión digital favorece los desequilibrios entre las aportaciones científicas y académicas y las rutinas de trabajo. Este planteamiento sirve de base para el estudio de caso en las versiones impresas de El País, ABC y El Mundo, donde se ha aplicado el método del análisis de contenido comparativo. Se observa el peso que ocupa la sección en relación al resto del diario, temáticas, géneros periodísticos y elementos complementarios empleados. El trabajo concluye que hay aspectos teóricos que se cumplen y otros que se quedan en utopías, así como la evidencia de que esta especialización se encuentra en un proceso de transformación e innovación en parte influenciada por su entorno digital.<hr/>This paper studies the Culture section of the printed media with the aim of specifying the coherence between the theoretical proposals of the researchers and the practical exercise of the profession, as reference the case of Spain. A bibliographic review of theoretical and empirical proposals is developed, to relate the works that suggest how this specialization should be and the research results who describe what it is like in practice. Is there a gap between the two? And if so, where are the differences? Digital pressure favors imbalances between scientific and academic contributions and work routines. This approach serves as the basis for the case study in the printed versions of El País, ABC and El Mundo, where the comparative content analysis method has been applied. We observe the weight of the section in relation to the rest of the newspaper, issues, journalistic genres and complementary elements used. The paper concludes that there are coincident theoretical aspects and others that remain in utopias, as well as the evidence that this specialization is in process of transformation and innovation, partly influenced by its digital environment.