Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motricidade]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=1646-107X20170003&lang=en vol. 13 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>Training programming</b>: <b>revisiting terminology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Effects of type of tapering on anaerobic capacity in young basketball players</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo da investigação foi analisar o efeito do tipo de polimento sobre a resistência anaeróbia em jovens atletas de basquetebol do sexo masculino. Trata-se de uma investigação com duração de 12 semanas, desenvolvida com 47 basquetebolistas, divididos randomicamente em três grupos: polimento linear (GL), polimento por etapa (GE) e grupo de controle (GC). Todos os grupos fizeram a mesma planificação de treinamento até às últimas três semanas da periodização (fase do polimento). Somente o GC não realizou polimento. Utilizou-se o Running Anaerobic Speed Test na última semana de cada mesociclo a fim de avaliar a resistência anaeróbia. Os achados revelaram que a resistência anaeróbia atenuou do período competitivo para o polimento no GL (p= .01) e GE (p= .01), fato não verificado para o GC (p= .29). Identificou-se diferença significativa da resistência anaeróbia entre GL e GC (p= .01), GE e GC (p= .01) e entre GL e GE (p= .04) na etapa do polimento. Concluiu-se que as estratégias de polimento foram eficientes para maximizar a resistência anaeróbia de jovens atletas de basquetebol, embora a estratégia de polimento linear tenha revelado uma maior melhora na resistência anaeróbia quando comparada a estratégia de polimento por etapa.<hr/>The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the type of tapering on anaerobic capacity in male young basketball players. This was an experimental research with 12 weeks, developed with 47 basketball players, randomly divided into three groups: linear tapering (LG), tapering by step (SG) and control group (CG). All groups participated of the same planning training until the last three weeks of periodization (the tapering phase). Only the CG did not perform tapering. Anaerobic Running Speed Test was carried in the last week of each mesocycle to assess the anaerobic capacity. The findings revealed that anaerobic capacity attenuated from the competitive to tapering phase in LG (p= .01) and SG (p= .01), which was not verified for the CG (p= .29). Significant difference of anaerobic capacity was found between LG and CG (p= .01), SG and CG (p= .01) and between LG and SG (p= .04) in the tapering phase. It was concluded that the tapering strategies were efficient to maximize anaerobic capacity in young basketball players, although linear tapering strategy has been revealed the best strategy for improvement the anaerobic capacity. <![CDATA[<b>Correlations between the simulated military tasks performance and physical fitness tests at high altitude</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to investigate the Correlations between the Simulated Military Tasks Performance and Physical Fitness Tests at high altitude. This research is part of a project to modernize the physical fitness test of the Colombian Army. Data collection was performed at the 13th Battalion of Instruction and Training, located 30km south of Bogota D.C., with a temperature range from 1ºC to 23ºC during the study period, and at 3100m above sea level. The sample was composed by 60 volunteers from three different platoons. The volunteers start the data collection protocol after 2 weeks of acclimation at this altitude. The main results were the identification of a high positive correlation between the 3 Assault wall in succession and the Simulated Military Tasks performance (r = 0.764, p<0.001), and a moderate negative correlation between pull-ups and the Simulated Military Tasks performance (r = -0.535, p<0.001). It can be recommended the use of the 20-consecutive overtaking of the 3 Assault wall in succession as a good way to estimate the performance in operational tasks which involve: assault walls, network of wires, military Climbing Nets, Tarzan jump among others, at high altitude. <![CDATA[<b>Life Comparison of kinematic variables of gait on a treadmill and on soil of individuals with Parkinson's disease</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A esteira ergométrica vem sendo utilizada para análise da marcha em muitos estudos, porém, torna-se necessário verificar se a marcha em esteira pode reproduzir de modo similar a marcha em solo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as variáveis cinemáticas da marcha em esteira e em solo em pacientes com Doença de Parkinson. A amostra foi constituída por sete indivíduos de ambos os gêneros, com diagnóstico de Parkinsonismo idiopático que realizassem marcha independente. Foi realizada avaliação biomecânica da marcha em solo com velocidade de preferência por cinco vezes consecutivas. Os participantes caminharam em um circuito para garantir uma marcha contínua. A análise da marcha em esteira foi realizada por 30 minutos após protocolo de familiarização. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas variáveis analisadas entre a marcha em solo e em esteira dos participantes. A marcha em solo é semelhante, em relação às variáveis cinemáticas analisadas, à marcha em esteira após período de familiarização.<hr/>The treadmill has been used for gait analysis in many studies, however, it is necessary to check whether the treadmill gait can reproduce similarly to gait on soil. The aim of this study was to compare gait kinematic variables on a treadmill and on soil in patients with Parkinson's disease. The sample consisted of seven individuals of both genders, diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinsonism who performed independent walking. Gait biomechanical analysis on soil with preferred speed for five consecutive times was performed. Participants walked on a circuit to ensure continuous walk. Gait analysis on the treadmill was realized for 30 minutes after familiarization protocol. No significant differences were found on the variables between gait on soil and on the treadmill of the participants. The gait in soil is similar, in relation to the kinematic variables analyzed, to the treadmill gait after familiarization period. <![CDATA[<b>Relationship between body image and somatotype profile in young women</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se há associação estatística entre insatisfação corporal, comportamentos, afetos e crenças relacionados ao próprio corpo com o somatótipo de mulheres adultas jovens. Participaram 142 universitárias (21,81± 3,0 anos) submetidas à avaliação do Índice de Massa Corporal e do somatótipo. Para avaliação da imagem corporal foram aplicados os instrumentos: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de variância multivariada (MANOVA one-way). Frente aos principais resultados, observou-se que a insatisfação corporal, a evitação corporal e atitudes negativas referentes à aparência, apresentam associação significante entre si e com os perfis somatotipológicos com predominância mesomórfica e endomórfica. Conclui-se que o perfil somatotipo pode ser um importante preditor de alterações na imagem corporal, podendo ser útil para rastrear grupos de risco<hr/>This study aimed to investigate associations among body dissatisfaction, behaviors, feelings, and beliefs related to the body - and somatotypical profile. The sample included 142 undergraduate female students (21.81 ± 3 years) who underwent to assessment of Body Mass Index and somatotype, according to the World Health Organization and Heath-Carter protocols, respectively. To assess body image the following instruments were applied: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale, Self-Subject Silhouettes To the analysis data we proceeded to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA one-way). As the main result, we find that body dissatisfaction, body avoidance and negative attitudes about appearance components are linked to each other and they are influenced by body profiles with mesomorphic and endomorphic predominance. We conclude that the somatotype profile can be an important predictor of changes in body image and is indicated for tracking risk groups. <![CDATA[<b>Contributions of body fat, fat free mass and arm muscle area in athletic performance of wheelchair basketball players</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aims of this study were: to verify the relationship (1) and dependency (2) between body fat (BF), fat free mass (FFM) and the arm muscle area (AMA) with athletic performance of wheelchair basketball players. Twenty-two subjects were evaluated according to the following order, in 24-hour intervals: a) anthropometric measurements and the Wingate anaerobic test (day 1); b) assessment of VO2peak and threshold (2); and c) specific tests (3). The results showed satisfactory relationships of AMA with handgrip left (r=.36; p=.08), VO2peak (r=.59; p=.03), medicine ball throwing (r=.54; p=.00), absolute (r=.61; p=.00) and relative anaerobic power (r=.67; p=.00). BF with handgrip left (r= .43; p=.03), medicine ball throwing (r=.50; p=.01), absolute (r=.77; p=.00) and relative (r=.82; p=.00) anaerobic power. And FFM with handgrip (r=.44; p=.03), medicine ball throwing (r=.43; p=.03), absolute (r=.64; p=.00) and relative (r=.69; p= .00) anaerobic power. The regression analyses revealed that only predictive models by AMA presented good determination coefficients to VO2peak (r²=.35; p=.00), medicine ball throwing (r²=.29; p=.00), absolute (r²=.37; p=.00) and relative (r²=.46; p=.00) anaerobic Power. The results indicated the importance to consider some anthropometric measures, in particular muscular tissue, to sport training and athletic performance evaluation of wheelchair basketball players. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of concentric and eccentric peak moment values for trunk flexion and extension in sedentary asymptomatic individuals by isokinetic dynamometry</b>: <b>a pilot study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The spine has a direct influence on postural alignment and movement of the whole body. Lumbar muscles constitute a critical element in trunk performance while weakness of these muscles has been associated with low back pain. Hence, strength profiling of trunk muscles is clinically significant. The objective of this research was to determine, by means of isokinetic dynamometry, peak moment (PM) values during isokinetic concentric and eccentric efforts of trunk flexion and extension in sedentary asymptomatic individuals. The sample consisted of 100 asymptomatic sedentary volunteers, fifty from each sex, aging 22.2 ± 3.3 years old. The sample underwent concentric and eccentric isokinetic assessment of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles at an angular velocity of 60 degrees/sec for each mode of contraction. The mean concentric PM for trunk flexion and extension were 139.5 and 166.6 Nm, respectively, while the respective values for the eccentric efforts were 188.8 and 221.2 Nm. The PM flexion/extension ratio was 0.87 and 0.89 for the concentric and eccentric efforts, respectively. These values of concentric and eccentric PM and PM ratio will serve as comparison parameters for future research, as well as for the assessment of symptomatic patients, and to help in the creation of the trunk muscle rebalance protocols. <![CDATA[<b>Impact of the Basic Psychological Needs in Subjective Happiness, Subjective Vitality and Physical Activity in an Elderly Portuguese Population</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The goal of this work is to analyze the impact of elderly Portuguese individuals’ global perception of satisfying basic psychological needs in the areas of subjective happiness, subjective vitality and physical activity through a structural equations model. The way of well-being differs according to the amount of physical activity practiced in Portuguese elderly was also analyzed. Participants included 309 elderly people (242 females, 67 males) of Portuguese nationality who practice different levels of physical activity. Their ages range from 60 to 90 years old (M=68.59; DP=6.60). The obtained results show that the perception of basic psychological needs in Portuguese elderly people’s lives are a positive predictor of subjective happiness and subjective vitality. Also, the results verified that elderly people who perceive higher levels of competence practice more physical activity. Consequently, it is also possible to conclude that elderly people who participate in more physical activities perceive greater levels of subjective happiness and subjective vitality. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the influence of plyometric training in improving the performance of athletes in rhythmic gymnastics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1646-107X2017000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) athletes need high-performance training since a high degree of precision is required in their exercises. Plyometric training (PT) has been used to improve athletes' neuromuscular function, explosive performance and strength in competition. The object of this study was to assess the efficiency of PT in improving the performance of RG athletes in the juvenile and adult categories over 12 months, by incorporating PT into two training macrocycles. Thirty athletes were selected; they were divided randomly into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG) of 15 athletes each. Two 6-month training macrocycles were drawn up for the EG in which they maintained normal training with the addition of PT. The CG maintained its normal training. Three tests were used for the assessment: vertical jump, horizontal jump and agility, assessed at 5 different moments. After 12 months it was observed an improvement in test performance in both groups, with a more significant improvement in the EG when compared to the CG. The addition of PT to normal training improved the performance of athletes by developing greater power in the lower limbs, increasing their capacity in vertical jump, horizontal jump and agility.