Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Motricidade]]> vol. 15 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Competência Aquática</b>: <b>um valor acrescentado à Educação Básica</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>O efeito agudo do exercício físico aquático sobre a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca de grávidas</b>]]> O exercício físico aquático na gravidez auxilia na diminuição da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca principalmente no terceiro trimestre gestacional. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito agudo do exercício físico aquático sobre a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca de grávidas no terceiro trimestre. Vinte e uma mulheres grávidas (31,18 ± 3,21 anos, 1,53 ± 0,05 m, 70,33 ± 17,61 kg, 27,87 ± 2,78 m2 kg-1) foram recrutadas. As voluntárias foram submetidas à uma sessão de exercício físico aquático e coletada a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca, antes e até 60 minutos após intervenção. A variabilidade da frequência cardíaca foi analisada no domínio do tempo e da frequência. Para procedimentos estatísticos a comparação da resposta da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em função do tempo (repouso x momentos) foi utilizado o Teste de Análise de Variância de Medidas Repetidas (ANOVA) com o valor de p<0,05. Houve diminuição da modulação simpática, refletida pela baixa frequência, no domínio da frequência, em repouso inicial (0,08± 0,03 vs. 0,05±0,02, p<0,05). Por outro lado, observou-se um aumento da modulação vagal caracterizada pela alta frequência (0,17±0,02; 0,18± 0,04, p< 0,05) em comparação ao repouso. Em conclusão, os resultados sugerem que uma sessão de hidroginástica pode ser uma estratégia útil para melhorar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em mulheres de terceiro.<hr/>Chronic Aquatic physical exercise during pregnancy helps reduce heart rate variability mainly in women in their third trimester gestational. In this context, the purpose of the study was to assess the acute of aquatic physical on heart rate variability in pregnant women in their third trimester. Twenty-one pregnant women (31.18 ± 3.21 years-old, 1.53 ± 0.05 m, 70.33 ± 17.61 kg, BMI of 27.87 ± 2.78 m2 kg-1) were included. The heart rate variability of the volunteers submitted to a session of aquatic physical effort was measured up to 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after intervention. Heart rate variability was analyzed in the time domain as well as the frequency time. Heart rate variability response in function of time (resting x activity) was between compared using the ANOVA test with p<0.05. When comparing low frequency, in the frequency domain, a reduction of the sympathetic modulation was found (0.08±0.03 vs. 0.05±0.02, p<0.05) when to compare baseline condition. On the other hand, an increase of the vagal modulation was observed, characterized by the high frequency (0.17±0.02; 0.18±0.04, p<0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that a session of APE can be to improve heart rate variability in pregnant women in their third trimester gestational. <![CDATA[<b>Organizational aspects of adults’ sports habits in Spain</b>: <b>gender and social differences</b>]]> The objectives of the present study were to determine if there exist differences with regard to gender in the organizational aspects related to adults’ sports habits in Spain and to analyze these organizational aspects as a function of age, level of completed education and social class. The research followed a quantitative methodology using a questionnaire that was administered to a sample of 3,463 subjects, 1,732 men (mean age 46.6 years ± 9.7) and 1,731 women (mean age 44.5 years ± 9.6). The results show that there exist significant differences in organizational aspects of sports habits between men and women and present interesting information for organizations about these aspects as a function of the different socio- demographic variables. <![CDATA[<b>Quality of life is associated with fatigue among Brazilian professional dancers</b>]]> This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship between quality of life and levels of fatigue among Brazilian professional dancers. A total of 127 professional classical ballet and contemporary dancers, both male and female, from professional dance companies of the Brazilian South-Southeast region, participated in the study. Data were collected using online self-administered questionnaires, the World Health Organization Quality of Life - Biomedical Research and Education Foundation (WHOQOL - BREF) and the Fatigue Symptom Checklist (FSC), to characterize the participants. Multiple linear regressions were used for data analysis. The results showed that worsened psychological health, social relationships, environment, and total quality of life domains were associated with the drowsiness and dullness scale. Worsened physical health, psychological, and total quality of life domains were also associated with the inability to concentrate scale. However, improvement in social relationships and total quality of life domains were associated with the awareness of physical discomfort scale. These results indicate that fatigue affects the quality of life of professional dancers differently based on the scales used to measure fatigue, which highlights the importance of studies empirically testing specific fatigue-modifying factors in professional dance contexts. <![CDATA[<b>Motor Learning Process of Virtual Reality Tasks with Different Demands in Post Stroke Individuals</b>]]> Practicing tasks in Virtual Reality (VR) environment has shown to be effective for gain in cognitive and motor functions in post stroke individuals. However, there are few information about how the motor learning process of tasks with different demands occurs in this population, and if there are differences when compared with healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the motor learning process of eight VR’s tasks with different cognitive and motor demands, in post stroke individuals (Experimental Group-EG), and compare it with healthy individuals (Control Group-CG). Eighteen individuals participated in the study performing eight sessions of practice, four for each task. The study involved: pre-test (1 session), acquisition phase (4 sessions for each task), post-test (1 session), and retention test (1 session after thirty days since the end of acquisition phase). The statistical analysis was run by a 2 x 3 ANOVA (groups x learning tests) with Tukey post hoc. At the end, EG group was able to learn three tasks, while CG learned four, one more than the ones learned by the post-stroke individuals. Task’s complexity affected, in more intensely the motor learning process in post-stroke individuals that with eight sessions were able to learn only low-complexity tasks. <![CDATA[<b>Data-driven analysis of point-by-point performance for male tennis player in Grand Slams</b>]]> Tennis is an individual sport that requires a specialized training and match preparation for every player. Former studies in tennis have tried many approaches to analyze player’s performance using descriptive statistics (such as: match time, rally duration, or game number) and match-related statistics (such as: first and second serve percentage, aces, double faults, or net points won). Although helpful in providing general information of match characteristics and evaluating player performance, there is scarce consideration over how elite male players behave on point-by-point basis according to different contextual variables. This study aimed to assess predictors of point outcome (win/lose) related to year, tournament types, round, set, quality of opposition, game status, serve and rally by using match data of 2011-2016 four Grand Slam. A total of 29675 points were recorded and analyzed through classification tree analysis (exhaustive CHAID). The results showed that the performance of tennis player was conditioned by the familiarity with court surfaces as well as other contextual variables, such as game type, quality of opposition, match status, serve and return and rally length (p< 0.05). These results provide insight for coaches and players when planning the game strategy, allowing more appropriate tactics under different game status. <![CDATA[<b>Knee joint forces in the “Serra da Estrela” territory</b>: <b>the Trails4Health project</b>]]> This study aimed to characterize knee joint forces in different trails from the Serra da Estrela with distinct characteristics. Twenty-nine subjects (20 males and 9 females), mean of 28.04±10.79 years, 1.73±0.09 m of height and 69.59±11.00 kg of body mass volunteered for this study. In separate days, all subjects underwent three hikes (trail 1: circular, 10970m; trail 2: linear, 9053m; trail 3: circular, 7536m). A GPS device (Fenix 5, Garmin, USA) was used to ensure a consistent 5 km.h-1 pace and tracking the slopes. The knee joint forces, namely the maximum patellofemoral compressive force (MaxPcF), the maximum tibiofemoral shear force (MaxTsF) expressed as times the body weight (xBW) and the load equivalent (LE) were estimated. The MaxPcF was 2.1, 1.8 and 2.1, and the MaxTsF was 0.83, 0.80 and 0.83 for trails 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The MaxPcF for trail 1 is equivalent to a flat 17386 m walk, and MaxTsF is equivalent to a 10980 m walk. The MaxPcF for trail 2 is equivalent to a flat 12605 m walk, and MaxTsF is equivalent to an 8320 m walk. The MaxPcF for trail 3 is equivalent to a flat 12357 m walk, and MaxTsF is equivalent to a 7532 m walk. According to the LE, trail 1 can be classified as “moderate”, and trails number 2 and 3 are classified as “pleasant”. Main data suggests that trail number 2 elicited less knee compression and shear forces. In contrast, trails number 1 and 3 are less appropriate for those who suffered from previous knee pain. <![CDATA[<b>Dynamic Evaluation Method of Lower Limb Joint Alignment with Parallel Feet (MADAAMI-P)</b>: <b>Content validation and Reproducibility</b>]]> Neutral static alignment, normal movement and a satisfactory segmental interrelationship are described as significant factors in normal asymptomatic function and, when altered, increase the risk of lesions in the lower limbs. It is important to focus on the early identification of joint misalignments. Thus, the present study aims at developing, validating the content developed and confirming the reproducibility of the Dynamic Evaluation Method of Lower Limb Joint Alignment with Parallel Feet (MADAAMI-P), a simple video-based evaluation method using surface markers and a score sheet. The study was carried out in three stages: (1) the Dynamic Evaluation Method of Lower Limb Joint Alignment for dancers (MADAAMI) was adapted; (2) the content validity of the score sheet used in MADAAMI-P was checked; and (3) the intra- and inter-rater reproducibility were evaluated. Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used in the statistical analysis to analyze the categories of the score sheet criteria and sum of the scores (a <0.05). The results showed that MADAAMI-P presents content validity satisfactory. <![CDATA[<b>Acute and subacute effects of resistance training with and without blood flow restriction on muscle thickness and cytokines</b>]]> It was our objective to verify the time course of muscle thickness and cytokine concentration after a resistance training session. In one of the experimental conditions, the training session was performed with low load (20% 1RM) and restriction of blood flow. In the other experimental condition, the same training was performed with high load (80% 1RM) and without blood flow restriction. Femoral rectus muscle, vastus lateralis, brachial biceps and triceps brachii muscle thickness and the serum cytokine dosage were analyzed pré, 0h, 24h and 48h after the training sessions. For the upper and lower limbs, the main results showed significant (p< 0.05) effect on time for the thickness in all muscle but not (p&gt; 0.05) to experimental condition. To cytokines concentrations, a significant (p= 0.004) interaction between the time and conduction for IL10. Conversely, there was no difference between the weeks (p= 0.698) or time (p= 0.142) in the means of TNF. In conclusion both experimental conductions promoted similar changes on muscular swelling without alterations on TNFa, however, the RST protocol induced increase on IL-10 concentration after 24 hours of exercise session. <![CDATA[<b>Efeitos do exercício físico nas autoperceções no domínio físico de jovens adolescentes</b>: <b>uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise</b>]]> O objetivo foi realizar revisão sistemática sobre os efeitos de programas de exercício físico ao nível das autoperceções no domínio físico de jovens adolescentes e comparar a magnitude do efeito utilizando meta- análise. Foi realizada busca nas bases Pubmed e PsychInfo, considerando o período de janeiro de 2005 a maio de 2015, com os seguintes descritores em inglês: “exercise”, “adolescents”, “physical self perception”, “self concept”. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 10 artigos. Após a avaliação da qualidade metodológica dos estudos, somente 7 foram incluídos na meta-análise. As análises foram realizadas utilizando o software informático Comprehensive meta-analysis versão 2.2. A maioria dos estudos compreendeu programas multidisciplinares e variou quanto ao tipo de exercício. A prática de programas de intervenção com exercício físico teve um efeito positivo ao nível das autoperceções no domínio físico de jovens adolescentes, quando comparados aos sujeitos do grupo controlo (nenhum exercício), sendo a magnitude do efeito de Z=3.44 (p=0.001). No entanto, mais estudos são necessários para confirmar os efeitos isolados do exercício face ao modo como os adolescentes se veem a si mesmos no dominio físico, bem como o tipo de exercício físico que apresenta um maior potencial gerador desses efeitos.<hr/>The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on the effects of exercise programs on adolescent´s Physical Self-perceptions and compare the magnitude of the effect using a meta-analysis. A search in Pubmed and PsychInfo databases was conducted ranging from January 2005 to May 2015 and using the following keywords in English language: “exercise”, “adolescents”, “physical self-perception”, “self-concept”. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were included in the review, however only seven were included in the meta-analysis after assessing the methodological quality of the studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive meta-analysis version 2.2. software. The majority of studies included multidisciplinary programs, however, they used different types of exercise. Physical exercise intervention programs had a positive effect on young adolescents self- perceptions in the physical domain when compared to the subjects in the control group (no exercise) and the magnitude of the effect was Z = 3.44 (p=0.001). However, more studies are needed to confirm the isolated effects of exercise on the way that teenagers perceive themselves in the physical domain, and about the type of exercise that has the greatest potential to generate these effects.