Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Etnográfica]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/rss.php?pid=0873-656120200003&lang=pt vol. 24 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.mec.pt <![CDATA[<b>Faça acontecer</b>: <b>a política da busca por autorrealização em empresas <i>startup</i> no Brasil e no Reino Unido</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt As empresas startup representam hoje a elite do empreendedorismo global. A busca por autorrealização é o que mobiliza os sujeitos em sua jornada empreendedora, um imaginário profundamente atrelado a um conjunto de práticas relacionadas à expressão e dramatização dos afetos. Nesse artigo, me volto para a categoria “faça acontecer”, prevalente em empresas startup. Busco compreender esse “fazer acontecer” a partir de uma perspectiva etnográfica. Meu objetivo é incorporar sentidos e práticas situados e contextuais e, assim, pensar sobre a experiência empreendedora no contexto de mudanças político-econômicas estruturais. Meu trabalho de campo foi conduzido entre os anos de 2014 e 2017 no Brasil e no Reino Unido, com jovens empreendedores e suas redes de investidores, consultores e experts no processo de estruturação de suas empresas.<hr/>Start-up companies represent the elite of global entrepreneurship. The search for self-actualisation is what prompts entrepreneurs to start new ventures, an imagining deeply embedded in a specific set of practices related to the expression and dramatization of feeling. In this article, I focus on the category “make it happen” prevalent in start-up companies. I seek to understand this “making it happen” from an ethnographic standpoint and encompass situated and contextual meanings and practices in order to produce a more textured account of the contemporary experience of living under changing socioeconomic structures. My fieldwork was conducted in Brazil and the United Kingdom between 2014 and 2017 among young entrepreneurs and networks of investors, consultants, and experts in the making of their own start-up companies. <![CDATA[<b>Os estudantes timorenses em rede</b>: <b>laços sociais e conforto emocional frente à solidão da experiência migratória no Brasil e em Portugal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artigo busca abordar a dimensão afetiva da cooperação acadêmica do Timor-Leste com Portugal e Brasil, em perspectiva etnográfica dos estudantes em mobilidade internacional. Focaliza um conjunto de alunos timorenses em universidades portuguesas e brasileiras, destacando um sentimento de solidão (mesak) por eles expresso nessa experiência migratória, e os meios de lidar com isso. As mídias sociais são os recursos mais utilizados para falar com a família e fazer novas amizades.<hr/>This article seeks to address the affective dimension of East Timorese academic cooperation with Portugal and Brazil, from an ethnographic perspective of students on international mobility. It focuses on a group of Timorese students in Portuguese and Brazilian universities, highlighting a feeling of loneliness (mesak) expressed by them in their migratory experience, and the means they use to deal with it. Social media is the most used resource for talking to family and making new friends. <![CDATA[<b>Com e sem vizinhos</b>: <b>formas de habitar becos e pátios nos centros de Salvador e Lisboa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre as relações entre espaço construído e práticas de habitar a partir do material etnográfico produzido em duas microlocalidades: o beco Camponesa e o pátio do Broas, situados no centro de Salvador e de Lisboa, respectivamente. Embora estes espaços partilhem uma história semelhante, sejam local de residência de setores populares e exibam formas físicas muito parecidas, eles apresentam formas de habitar bastante diferentes. Os dados empíricos produzidos no beco e no pátio analisados nos permitem afirmar que nem os lugares geram formas de habitar, nem o espaço construído engendra um conteúdo específico. As práticas do habitar com vizinhos derivam de outros fatores, dentre os quais destacamos o tempo livre decorrente do regime de trabalho no qual estão inseridos seus habitantes, a propriedade dos imóveis e a concepção de casa.<hr/>This article aims to reflect on the relationship between constructed space and living practices, based on the ethnographic material produced in two micro-locations: the Camponesa alley and the pátio do Broas, located in downtown Salvador and Lisbon, respectively. Although these spaces share a similar history, are places of residence of popular segments and exhibit very similar physical forms, they present different ways of living. The empirical data produced in the alley and courtyard analyzed allow us to affirm that neither the places generate ways of inhabiting nor the constructed space engenders a specific content. The practices of living with neighbors derive from other factors, among which we highlight the free time resulting from the work regime of its inhabitants, the property ownership and the conception of house. <![CDATA[<b>The memory of migrations as a medium for municipal promotion</b>: <b>the emigrant's festivity of Murtosa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Comment les migrations et les relations transnationales qui en découlent sont-elles réinterrogées par les habitants et leurs élus au prisme de sphères fort variées de la vie sociale locale ? Cet article interroge la façon dont des liens transnationaux dépassent les territoires, les villes et les pays concernés pour finalement servir de support à d’autres types de relations, notamment touristiques. Une recherche menée entre la France et le Portugal permet d’éclairer trois aspects de ces liens, articulés autour de la valorisation de l’émigration. Le cas de Murtosa, ville portugaise marquée par une “ culture de la migration ”, illustre un tel processus d’élargissement des liens. Mon propos présente tout d’abord l’établissement d’un consensus sur le respect des émigrants et son corollaire, moins légitime, des voix remettant en cause ce consensus. Deuxièmement, j’aborde les modalités de création de nouveaux liens, notamment par l’entremise d’une fête de l’émigrant, au-delà des villes concernées par les parcours migratoires classiques. Enfin, l’intégration d’une politique de valorisation de l’émigrant questionne la saisie des migrations et des relations transnationales comme ressource dans des perspectives touristiques et de développement local.<hr/>How are migration and the resulting transnational relationships re-interpreted by residents and their elected representatives in the prism of diverse spheres of local social life? This article examines how transnational links go beyond the territories, cities and countries concerned and ultimately serve as a basis for other types of relationships, particularly tourism. The case of Murtosa, a city marked by a “culture of migration”, illustrates such a process of widening ties. My remarks begin by presenting the establishment of a consensus on respect for emigrants and its corollary, less legitimate, of voices questioning this consensus. Second, I discuss how new links are created, including by means of an “emigrant’s festivity,” extending beyond the cities involved in traditional migration routes. Finally, the integration of a policy to enhance the value of the emigrant raises the question of how to take on migration and transnational relations as resources in tourism and local development perspectives. <![CDATA[<b>Governing the house</b>: <b>an ethnographic approach (introduction)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Comment les migrations et les relations transnationales qui en découlent sont-elles réinterrogées par les habitants et leurs élus au prisme de sphères fort variées de la vie sociale locale ? Cet article interroge la façon dont des liens transnationaux dépassent les territoires, les villes et les pays concernés pour finalement servir de support à d’autres types de relations, notamment touristiques. Une recherche menée entre la France et le Portugal permet d’éclairer trois aspects de ces liens, articulés autour de la valorisation de l’émigration. Le cas de Murtosa, ville portugaise marquée par une “ culture de la migration ”, illustre un tel processus d’élargissement des liens. Mon propos présente tout d’abord l’établissement d’un consensus sur le respect des émigrants et son corollaire, moins légitime, des voix remettant en cause ce consensus. Deuxièmement, j’aborde les modalités de création de nouveaux liens, notamment par l’entremise d’une fête de l’émigrant, au-delà des villes concernées par les parcours migratoires classiques. Enfin, l’intégration d’une politique de valorisation de l’émigrant questionne la saisie des migrations et des relations transnationales comme ressource dans des perspectives touristiques et de développement local.<hr/>How are migration and the resulting transnational relationships re-interpreted by residents and their elected representatives in the prism of diverse spheres of local social life? This article examines how transnational links go beyond the territories, cities and countries concerned and ultimately serve as a basis for other types of relationships, particularly tourism. The case of Murtosa, a city marked by a “culture of migration”, illustrates such a process of widening ties. My remarks begin by presenting the establishment of a consensus on respect for emigrants and its corollary, less legitimate, of voices questioning this consensus. Second, I discuss how new links are created, including by means of an “emigrant’s festivity,” extending beyond the cities involved in traditional migration routes. Finally, the integration of a policy to enhance the value of the emigrant raises the question of how to take on migration and transnational relations as resources in tourism and local development perspectives. <![CDATA[<b>Casas feitas de olhares</b>: <b>uma etnografia dos muros em um loteamento periférico do Rio de Janeiro</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A etnografia de um loteamento periférico no Rio de Janeiro sugere que a construção de muros, em vez de significar um encolhimento da sociabilidade pública, afirma a presença constitutiva do outro na organização da vida privada. Em primeiro lugar, os muros (e as cercas) indicam que alguém está tomando conta do lugar, isto é, tornam público o compromisso prático da pessoa com o lugar. Em seguida, os muros (e os portões) dão liberdade e privacidade a cada família, revelando as tendências individualistas e coletivistas que atravessam as “configurações de casas”. Enfim, os muros (e as janelas) atuam dentro de uma “economia do olhar”: como bem mostra a crença no olho grande, os moradores procuram, através deles, controlar sua exposição ao olhar alheio, enquanto ficam de olho na rua. O artigo conclui defendendo uma abordagem propriamente etnográfica da distinção público-privado, voltada antes para o funcionamento dessa economia.<hr/>The ethnography of an irregular subdivision in the urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro suggests that walls, rather than the shrinkage of public sociability, affirm the constitutive presence of the others inside private life. First, walls (and fences) indicate that someone is taking care of the place, that is, they make public one’s practical commitment with the place. Then walls (and gates) give freedom and privacy to each family, revealing the individualistic and collectivist tendencies that build the “house configurations.” Finally, walls (and windows) act within an “economy of eyes”: according to the belief in the evil eye, people try to control their exposure to other people’s eye, while keeping an eye on them. The article concludes by advocating an ethnographic approach to public-private distinction, which focuses on this economy. <![CDATA[<b>Relocating and setting up authority</b>: <b>issues about domestic units of Hight-Atlas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Cet article vise à questionner les discours sur le gouvernement domestique dans le Haut-Atlas agropastoral au Maroc. Basé sur une étude ethnographique, il interroge les conditions de possibilité des discours sur la cohésion du groupe symbolisée par l’autorité du père. Il s’agit de mettre en lumière les pratiques par lesquelles cohésion et autorité sont actualisées, et de questionner les unités d’analyse utilisées en sciences sociales. La mise en regard des caractéristiques morphologiques de groupes domestiques ainsi que des pratiques et trajectoires de certains de leurs membres donne à voir comment la cohésion et l’autorité sont plus ou moins fortement soumises à tensions (et donc mises en péril). Il apparaît ainsi que le groupe (et l’autorité en son sein) s’actualise par un travail permanent des membres sur ses aspects sociaux, économiques et spatiaux, notamment par les pratiques matrimoniales et résidentielles ou encore les pratiques d’acquisition et de transmission de patrimoine. Cette approche permettra de questionner la « maison » comme objet de discours sur le gouvernement domestique dans le Haut-Atlas agropastoral au Maroc.<hr/>This article attempts to question the speeches about domestic government in agropastoral Hight-Atlas in Morocco. Based on an ethnographical research, the article questions the conditions of possibility of speeches about group cohesion symbolized by father’s authority. It aims to shed light on practices by which cohesion and authority are implemented, and to question units of analysis used by researchers. Comparison of domestic groups’ morphological characteristics or member’s practices and trajectories leads to observe that cohesion and authority are subject to tensions (and are therefore endangered). Doing so, one can see that a group (and the authority within it) is actualized by its membres’ permanent work on its social, economic and spatial characteristics, such as for instance matrimonial and residential practices, or acquisition and devolution of inheritance. This approach allows to question the “house” as an object of speeches about domestic government, within agropastoral Hight-Atlas in Morocco. <![CDATA[<b>Becoming "free" thanks to social housing? </b>: <b>Maroon appropriations in Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (French Guiana)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dans cet article, j’analyse les appropriations du logement social par les classes populaires bushinenguées à Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, en montrant comment les enjeux du gouvernement de la maison sont étroitement liés aux modes de gouvernement étatiques. Pour leurs occupants, les logements sociaux matérialisent une ascension sociale et une intégration urbaine, voire une émancipation conjugale pour les femmes : ce « changement de vie » leur permet de devenir « libres » (frey). Les habitants réalisent des marquages de l’espace extérieur et/ou intérieur et revendiquent l’aménagement du quartier. Les aménagements qui leur sont apportés font l’objet d’une dénonciation de la part des autorités françaises, selon des frontières de classe, race et nationalité. Les enjeux de « gouvernement de la maison » mêlent donc indissociablement les rapports de pouvoir internes au groupe de parenté et au couple, et les tensions entre habitants bushinengués et administrations françaises du logement.<hr/>In this article, I analyse the appropriations of social housing within maroon working classes in Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni in French Guiana. I show that issues of power within the house are intricately linked to state governing modes. For their occupants, social housing materializes social ascent and urban integration, or marital emancipation for women: this “change of life” allows them to become “free” (frey). The residents mark the exterior and/or interior space and claim the development of the neighbourhood. The adjustments they make are denounced by the French authorities, along class, race, and nationality boundaries. The issues of “house government” therefore inextricably combine the power relations within a kinship group or a couple, and tensions between inhabitants and French authorities. <![CDATA[<b>Movements and recognitions</b>: <b>residential circulations and kinship government in Santiago</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt L’enquête ethnographique que j’ai menée entre 2006 et 2015 auprès de groupes familiaux issus de divers milieux socioéconomiques à Santiago a révélé l’importance des rapports d’interdépendance résidentielle de la parenté en milieu urbain, par la formation de « configurations de maisons ». En critiquant l’approche dominante du recensement, j’interroge les modes de la circulation résidentielle à l’intérieur de telles configurations, tels qu’ils sont interprétés et signifient du point de vue indigène. Par l’analyse de deux cas ethnographiques, je montre que les circulations quotidiennes entre maisons ne sont pas seulement des « faits » résultant de problèmes pratiques ou des conditions démographiques, économiques ou urbaines de base, comme mis en avant par la littérature. Du point de vue natif, la direction, la fréquence et les modalités des déplacements résidentiels sont interprétés comme des « gestes » qui activent un langage de reconnaissance intersubjective, en configurant des formes plus symétriques ou plus asymétriques d’interdépendance entre maisons.<hr/>The ethnographic survey that I conducted between 2006 and 2015 with family groups from various socioeconomic backgrounds in Santiago revealed the importance of relationships of residential kinship in urban areas, through the formation of “configuration of houses”. By criticizing the dominant approach centered on objective measures, I question the patterns of residential circulations within such configurations as they are interpreted and mean from the native point of view. By analyzing two ethnographic cases, I show that daily circulations between houses is not just “facts” resulting from practical problems or demographic, economic or urban conditions. From a native point of view, the direction, frequency and modalities of residential movements are “gestures” that activate a language of intersubjective recognition, by configuring more symmetrical or more asymmetrical forms of interdependence between houses. <![CDATA[<b>Diaspora houses and local houses</b>: <b>Haitian mobility and transnational networks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt L’article a pour objectif d’analyser les rapports entre maisons et mobilités transnationales dans le monde social haïtien, ainsi que leurs modes de gouvernement. Il s’appuie sur des enquêtes ethnographiques prolongées, menées dans les villes de Fonds-des-Nègres, en Haïti et de Cayenne en Guyane française, permettant ainsi de suivre les trajectoires migratoires des Haïtiens. Est récurrent chez les Haïtiens l’usage du concept « diaspora » pour différencier les maisons : kay dyaspora (maison diaspora), kay lokal (maison locale) et kay nan dyaspora (maison en diaspora). L’article s’intéresse plus particulièrement à deux maisons, une « diaspora » et l’autre « locale » dans le but de montrer comment la construction des maisons et leur ameublement reflètent les liens que les Haïtiens en mobilité transnationale établissent entre eux, les lieux où ils se rendent et leurs maisons d’origine où ils ont parfois un eritaj (héritage). Dans quelle mesure la dynamique des maisons et leur différenciation éclairent-elles le monde social haïtien, notamment les mobilités transnationales de ses acteurs ? Comment, réciproquement, ce monde en mouvement nous renseigne-t-il sur la dynamique des maisons, leurs relations, sur les rapports entre les maisons et les objets qui les peuplent, sur les liens entre ceux qui partent et ceux qui restent sur place ? Comment se constitue le gouvernement des maisons ? Il n’y a pas de diaspora sans mobilité des personnes et il n’y a pas de mobilité sans maisons. Les « maisons diasporas » et les « maisons locales » donnent à lire les différentes dimensions de la culture et de la société haïtienne, notamment les hiérarchies socioéconomiques de ce pays.<hr/>The objective of the article is to analyze the relationships between homes and transnational mobility in the Haitian social world, as well as their modes of government. It is based on prolonged ethnographic surveys, carried out in the cities of Fonds-des-Nègres, in Haiti, and Cayenne, in French Guiana, thus making it possible to follow the migratory trajectories of Haitians. A recurrent theme among Haitians is the use of the concept « diaspora » to differentiate homes : kay dyaspora (diaspora home), kay lokal (local home) and kay nan dyaspora (home in diaspora). The article focuses more specifically on two homes, one “diaspora” and the other “local” in order to show how the construction of the homes and their furnishings reflect the links that Haitians in transnational mobility establish between them, places they go to in contrast with their original homes where they sometimes have a heritage. To what extent do the dynamics of homes and their differentiation enlighten the Haitian social world, in particular the transnational mobilities of its actors? How, conversely, does this moving world inform us about the dynamics of homes, their relationships, the relationships between homes and the objects that populate them, the links between those who leave and those who stay in place? How is home governance constituted? There is no diaspora without mobility and there is no mobility without homes. The “diasporas homes” and the “local home” give an insight into the different dimensions of Haitian culture and society, in particular the socio-economic hierarchies of Haiti. <![CDATA[<b>Uma casa boa, uma casa ruim e a morte no cotidiano</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A proposta do texto é refletir sobre a morte como um processo vivido, compartilhado, duradouro e cotidiano. Trata de duas mortes, a de uma mulher e a de seu filho. A distinção que ela fazia entre uma casa “boa” e uma casa “ruim” revela um universo moral em torno da aspiração por um futuro bom, da construção de pessoas boas e da manutenção de relações de proximidade. Mostro como a atribuição de agência recíproca entre casas e pessoas expressa o sucesso ou fracasso de manter o fluxo da vida nessa direção. Essas aspirações e planos coletivos se articulam ao governo da e na favela, expresso por uma espacialidade específica ligada ao comércio de drogas proibidas. Descrevo também como as casas participam do morrer no cotidiano, mobilizando pessoas, coisas e dinheiros em torno do cuidado com o moribundo. O morrer de uma pessoa é considerado um processo crítico, capaz de revelar a verdade de afetos, promover novas relações e romper outras. Essa criticidade se estende ao fazer etnográfico, ao colocar o sofrimento como um fator central na relação com os interlocutores em campo. Argumento que o texto promove um duplo movimento interpretativo, tanto etnográfico quanto íntimo, em busca de sentido para a morte.<hr/>The purpose of the text is to reflect on death as a lived, shared, lasting and everyday process. It deals with two deaths, that of a woman and her son. The distinction she made between a “good” house and a “bad” house reveals a moral universe around the aspiration for a good future, the construction of good people and the maintenance of relationships of proximity. I show how the attribution of a reciprocal agency between houses and people, expresses the success or failure in maintaining the flow of life in this direction. These collective aspirations and plans are articulated to the government of and in the favela, expressed by a specific spatiality linked to the prohibited drug trade. I also describe how houses participate in dying in everyday life by mobilizing people, things, and money around the caring for the dying. A person’s death is consid¬ered a critical process, capable of revealing the truth of affections, promoting new relationships and breaking others. This criticality extends to doing ethnography by placing suffering as a central factor in the relationship with interlocutors in the field. I argue that the text promotes a double interpretive movement, both ethnographic and intimate, in search of meaning for death. <![CDATA[<b>From ‘our pot’ to ‘my pot’</b>: <b>reflections on ownership and long-term fieldwork with the Suyá/ Ksêdjê 1971-2019</b>]]> http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0873-65612020000300012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper addresses issues of anthropological and ethnomusicological field research and changes in Suyá/Ksêdjê concepts of ownership over a half century. It begins with a pot and moves to a discussion of a few of the issues involved in selecting a research topic and field site. It continues with a discussion of the author’s fieldwork experiences with the Suyá/Ksêdjê Indigenous group in Brazil that the author has been visiting for almost 50 years. The paper discusses some of the advantages, disadvantages, and determinants of such long-term field research. Some things have changed a lot over 50 years and others have not changed as much. An important area of change among the Suyá/Ksêdjê has been in the concept of “ownership and control.” Ksêdjê ideas have been transformed, especially during the past 20 years, by their increased contact with the market economy and their experience licensing body paint designs to a sandal company. The advantages of long-term field research, of encouraging a younger scholar to continue work with the Ksêdjê,and the opportunities to learn from changing concepts of ownership and fieldwork are evidenced throughout the paper and summarized in the short concluding section.